The 1000th year of accession of the great Tamil Chola Emperor the Rajendra Chola - 1

Thread started by virarajendra on 26th November 2013 10:37 AM

Author: Virarajendra

The 1000th year of accession (A.D.1014-2014) of the great Tamil Chola Emperor the Rajendra Chola - 1 on Chola throne - Part 1

(Under Construction)

(1) The re-emergence of Chola country as an independent kingdom of Tamil Nadu of South India

"The Cholas" were 'one of the three principal Tamil dynasties' who ruled regions of present Tamil Nadu and Kerala of India from time immemorial - namely the Cherar, Cholar & Paandiyar. The Chola kingdom during most part of the historical period approximately covered the central regions of present Tamil Nadu encompassing the Thanjavur district, Thiruvarur district, Nagapattinam district, Ariyalur district and Karur district.

From the beginning of the second half of nineth century, the Cholas gradually re-emerged as a ruling dynasty of Tamil Nadu, after a spell in political obscurity from the third century A.D. and as feudatory from the fifth century A.D. under Kalabra, Pallava and Pandiya dynasties of South India. Towards the mid eighth century A.D. the Cholas gradualy rose as a very powerful - "Tamil ruling dynasty of Tamil Nadu", with their capital at Palaiyaarai in Thanjavur district. However it was during the period of Rajaraja Chola - 1 (A.D.985-1014) the Cholas rose as a great power of un-imaginable heights in India.

He was the second son of Sunthara Chola (Paraanthaha - 2) and Vaanavan Mathevi (also referred to as "Periya Vaanavan Mathevi"). Among his queens "Chola Maatheviyaar alias Panchavan Maatheviyaar" was his chief queen (Patta Mahishi) and "Thiribhuvana Maatheviyaar alias Vaanavan Maatheviyaar" was his second queen.

Evidence to the above References

“In the third year of Rajakesarivarman (A.D.988)…..Chola Maadeviyar alias Panchavan Maadeviyar queen of Mummudichola…..(Rajaraja – 1)…..records sale of land...”
Inscription on south wall of central shrine at Manikanthesvara temple at Thirumaalpuram,
Arkonam Taluk, Tamil Nadu.
Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy - 1906, Inscription: 294

“…...queen of Rajaraja the Vaanavan Maadeviyaar alias Thiribuvana Maadeviyaar, the mother of Rajendra Chola......"
On the north wall of the central shrine at Thiruvenkadu Siva temple in Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu
Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy, Inscription No 448 of 1918.

Bronze, Stone and Painted Images of Rajaraja Chola - 1

Bronzes of Rajaraja Chola - 1 & Chola Maathevi alias Panchavan Maatheviyaar, Stone Image of Rajaraja Chola - 1 (on the left front wall at the main entrance 'of the Rajarajaeswarem Temple' at Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu), the Mural of Rajaraa Chola - 1 and Rajendra Chola - 1 on the wall of the inner corridor of the first Tier of Karuvarai (sanctum sanctorium)of Thanjavur Rajarajeswarem Temple.


The Bronze Portrait Images seen above "said" to be that of Rajaraja Chola - 1 and that of Chola Madeviyaar (alias Panchavan Madeviyar) the Patta Mahishi of Rajaraja Chola - 1 are presently preserved at the Sarabhai Foundation at Ahmedabad in Gujerat. It is noted in this Bronze Image of Rajaraja Chola - 1 has a crown with three cone rings at it’s top, similer to the Stone Image Sculpture of him at the Rajarajeswarm Temple (Periya Koyil) at Thanjavur, located on the left Wall Panel Niche of the Muha Mandapam of the main entrance to this Temple (see Muhamandam left Wall Panel in the image below). Further the Bronge Image of Rajaraja Chola - 1 in addition to the crown has the waist band, arm bands, many necklaces and the “Veera Kalal” on his left leg indicating that he is the warrior-king, very similer to the Rajaraja Stone image at Rajarajeswarem Temple. Hence we could positively conclude that these two Bronze Images preserved at Sarabhai Foundation are that of of Rajaraja Chola - 1 and that of his Patta Mahishi Chola Madeviyaar (alias Panchavan Madeviyar)

At the Samanar Madam at Thirumalai in Tamil Nadu - Kundavi Naachiyaar the elder sister of Rajaraja Chola - 1 has built a Jain Temple, where exists "two" stone panels with the portrait sculpture of this king, highlighted for the first time by the Research Scholar "Subashini Tremmel". In both the king is in the same pose with his sword held in his right hand held vertical pressed on the floor with his left hand in his left hip.

There is a further bronze statue of Chola Maathevi alias Panchavan Maatheviyaar the (Chief Queen = Pattamahishi) of Rajaraja Chola - 1 was cast by the sculptor Nichchapattalakan on the instructions of Rajendra Chola - 1 and consecrated at the Kaalahasti temple in the present Andhra Pradesh. This beautiful bronze statue with the inscription on it's pedestal giving the above details could be seen in this temple..

Evidences for the above References

"....Nambiraatiyar (Nam [Rajaraja Chola - 1] Piraatiyaar [Queen]) Chola Mahadevi, caused to be made by Niccapattalaka(n) of Kattinallur in Kanjirukkai Nadu of Rajaraja Mandalam by order by (Rajaraja's son) Rajendra Choladeva......"

Rajaraja Chola's Inscription on the pedestal of a bronze statue at Kalahasti Temple in Chitoor District, Andhra Pradesh.
Annual Report on South Indian Epigrapy - 168b of 1922

(2) Rajaraja Chola - 1 emerges as first Emperor of the Chola dynasty with his expansion of his kingdom into an empire
(A brief study)

Under Rajaraja Chola - 1 (A.D.985-1014) ruling from Thanjavur, the Chola kingdom grew into an empire with his conquer of vast territories almost 3/5 of the Indian Mainland, Elamandalam the northern half of Sri Lanka, and Palandeepa twelve thousand (Maldive Islands) in 'near overseas' in the south and west of India.

Rajaraja Chola - 1 commenced his war expedition in the Indian Mainland, with the capture of Paandiya Nadu renamed as Rajaraja Paandimandalam of south Tamil Nadu, followed by his capture of Kandalursaalai and Vilignam a seaport city - both in south Kerala in the year A.D.994.

After a lapse of four years he turned his attention to Seetpulinaadu, Paaki Naadu of south Andhra Pradesh and the Vengi country renamed as Vengimandalam in north-east Andhra Pradesh. After the capture of these regions he proceeded to the regions Gangapaadi renamed as Mudikonda Cholamandalam in southern-most Karnataka, Thadigaipaadi renamed as Vikkrama Cholamandalam in south-central Karnataka, Nulambapaadi renamed as Nigarili Cholamandalam in south-east Karnataka and Tuluva Nadu in the northern tip along the west coast of Karanataka. He captured the regions of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka in one single expedition in the year A.D.998.

He then he turned his attention to Kudamalainaadu in west Kerala, and sent an expedition in his A.D.999. It was in this same expedition he won over the Udagai in the west Tamilnadu bordering Kerala ruled by a Chera prince on-behalf of the Chera ruler in Kudamalainadu. In the early part of the following year in A.D.1000 he sent an expedition and conquered the Kollam of Kerala.

In the second part of this same year a separate expedition was sent to Kalinga of Orrisa state north of earlier conquered region the Vengimandalam. It appears it was in this same expedition he captured Odda of Orissa and Magadha of Bihar, Vanga & Gauda of West Bengal.

In the year A.D.1001 he sent a war expedition near overseas to Elamandalam the present Sri Lanka and captured the northern half of this Island kingdom and re-named it as Mummudi Cholamandalam.

During this period the Sri Vijaya Empire of Sumatra, Indonesia was ruled by Emperor Chulaamanivarman from his capital city Sri Vijaya the present Palembang in Sumatra, who was also the "overlord" of the kingdom of Kadarem the present Kedah & Perak regions of Malaysia. This kingdom was ruled by King Samara Vijayotungavarman as subodinate to the Emperor Chulaamanivarman of Sri Vijaya Empire. With the very heavy growth of Trade Relations between the Chola country of Tamil Nadu and the Kadarem kingdom of Malaysia during this period, there had been a big garrison of Chola Forces stationed at Kadaarem to safeguard the interests of the Chola Traders in this region.

It was between the years A.D.1002-1005 the subodinate king of Kadarem the Samara Vijayotungavarman revolted to be independent from the clutches of Emperor Chulamanivarman of Sri Vijaya, and the garrison of Chola forces at Kadarem assisted Emperor Chulaamanivarman to defeat Samara Vijayotungavarman in this revolt and replace him with his own son Mara Vijayotungavarman at Kadarem as subordinate king under him. This possibly made Rajaraja Chola - 1 to claim his victory over Katakas and over it's king Samara Vijayotungavarman as seen in the "Essaalam Copper Plates - which states "....Oddaan, Kadaahaan Samara Vijayina, Keralaan, Gauda, Paandiyaan, jithvaa vishva-shitheeyaan jitha-sakala-thanai......".

In the year A.D.1006 he sent an expedition to captureIrrattaipaadi Elaraiillakkam the north Karnataka & south Maharashtra with its capital at Mannaikadakkam the Maleked, along with three other regions being the Konkanar in west Maharashtra, Saurashtra in Gujarat, Malava in north Maharashtra and south-west Madhya Pradesh, and the kings of Kurunaadu in Haryaana}

The Rajaraja Chola - 1 with the wealth he accumulated from his conquests he erected at "Thanjavur" a massive and impressive Siva temple entirely of granite stone with it's Vimanam towering to a height of 216 ft. It was named as "Rajarajaesvarem" - the present Brahatheeswara Temple (Periya Koyil). The construction of the Rajarajaeswarem temple commenced around A.D.1000 and was completed and the Kuda Mulukku peru vilaa (maha Kumba-abishekam) took place in the year A.D.1010 mid January. On the occasion of Kumbha Abishekam of this temple a Seppuk Kalasam laid over with gold was placed on the Mudi (crest) of the Vimanam of the temple of Sri-Rajarajaesvaramudaiyar by Pavana Pidaran the - a Saiva Acharyaar in the prence of Rajaraja's Guru - the Esaana Siva Pandithar. Rajaraja Chola theafter appointed Pavana Pidaran as the chief Saiva Acharya of the temple Rajarajaesvaram.

This temple was designed by a group of Silpis (Perum Thatchchar) and the chief among the Silpis who was intrumental in the construction of this great temple was Viracholan Kunjajara Mallan alias Rajaraja Perum Thatchchan with his two assistants, and the expertise of two other Silpis namely the Kunavan Mathuranthahan alias Niththavinotha Perum Thatchchan and Ilaththi Sadaiyan alias Kandaraathiththa Perum Thatchchan..

After a further lapse of seven years in the year A.D.1013 Rajaraja Chola's forces crossed seas again, and captured the Munneer Palanthivu Panneeraayiram the Maldives Islands

The "Karuvur Thevar" the Tamil Saiva Saint of Tamil Nadu of this period, a contemporary of Rajaraja Chola - 1 and Rajendra Chola - 1, lived to see the completion of the construction of stupendous architectural monuments the Thanjavur Rajarajaeswarem (A.D.1010) and Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem Temples (A.D.1035) built both in the name of God Siva. He in much piety composed two Thevaarap Pathikams (Pathikam - a 10 or 11 Verse praise poems on God Siva), one on each of these temples. The Pathikam on the Thanjavur Rajarajaeswarem is as follows:

உலகெலாம் தொழவந்(து) எழுகதிர்ப் பருதி
ஒன்றுநூ றாயிர கோடி
அலகெலாம் பொதிந்த திருவுடம்(பு) அச்சோ !
அங்ஙனே அழகிதோ, அரணம்
பலகுலாம் படைசெய் நெடுநிலை மாடம்
பருவரை ஞாங்கர்வெண் திங்கள்
இலைகுலாம் பதணத்(து) இஞ்சிசூழ் தஞ்சை
இராசரா சேச்சரத்(து) இவர்க்கே
. 1

நெற்றியிற் கண்என் கண்ணில்நின் றகலா
நெஞ்சினில் அஞ்சிலம்(பு) அலைக்கும்
பொற்றிரு வடிஎன் குடிமுழு தாளப்
புகுந்தன போந்தன இல்லை
மற்றெனக்(கு) உறவேன் மறிதிரை வடவாற்
றிடுபுனல் மதிகில் வாழ் முதலை
ஏற்றிநீர்க் கிடங்கில் இஞ்சிசூழு தஞ்சை
இராசரா சேச்சரத் திவர்க்கே
. 2

சடைகெழு மகுடம் தண்ணிலா விரிய
வெண்ணிலா விரிதரு தரளக்
குடைநிழல் விடைமேற் கொண்டுலாப் போதும்
குறிப்பெனோ கோங்கிணர் அனைய
குடைகெழு நிருபர் முடியடு முடிதேய்ந்து
உக்கசெஞ் சுடர்ப்படு குவையோங்(கு)
இடைகெழு மாடத்து இஞ்சிசூழ் தஞ்சை
இராசரா சேச்சரத் திவர்க்கே
. 3

வாழியம் போதத்(து) அருகுபாய் விடையம்
வரிசையின் விளக்கலின் அடுத்த
சூழலம் பளிங்கின் பாசலர் ஆதிச்
சுடர்விடு மண்டலம் பொலியக்
காழகில் கமழும் மாளிகை மகளீர்
கங்குல்வாய் அங்குலி கெழும
யாழொலி சிலம்பும் இஞ்சிசூழ் தஞ்சை
இராசரா சேச்சரத் திவர்க்கே
. 4

எவரும்மா மறைகள் எவையும் வானவர்கள்
ஈட்டமும் தாட்டிருக் கமலத்
தவரும்மா லவனும் அறிவரும் பெருமை
அடலழல் உமிழ்தழற் பிழம்பர்
உவரிமா கடலின் ஒலிசெய்மா மறுகில்
உறுகளிற்(று) அரசின(து) ஈட்டம்
இவருமால் வரைசெய் இஞ்சிசூழ் தஞ்சை
இராசரா சேச்சரத் திவர்க்கே
. 5

அருளுமா(று) அருளி ஆளுமா(று) ஆள
அடிகள்தம் அழகிய விழியும்
குருளும்வார் காதும் காட்டியான் பெற்ற
குயிலினை மயல்செய்வ(து) அழகோ
தரளவான் குன்றில் தண்நிலா ஒளியும்
தருகுவால் பெருகுவான் தெருவில்
இருளெலாம் கிழியும் இஞ்சிசூழ் தஞ்சை
இராசரா சேச்சரத் திவர்க்கே
. 6

தனிப்பெருந் தாமே முழுதுறப் பிறப்பின்
தளிர்இறப்(பு) இலைஉதிர்(வு) என்றால்
நினைப்பருந் தம்பால்சேறலின் றேனும்
நெஞ்சிடிந்(து) உருகுவ(து) என்னே
கனைப்பெருங் கலங்கல் பொய்கையங் கழுநீர்ச்
சூழல்மா ளிகைசுடர் வீசும்
எனைப்பெரு மணஞ்செய் இஞ்சிசூழு தஞ்சை
இராசரா சேச்சரத் திவர்க்கே
. 7

பன்நெடுங் காலம் பணிசெய்து பழையோர்
தாம் பலர் ஏம்பலித் திருக்க
என்நெடுங் கோயில் நெஞ்சுவீற் றிருந்த
எளிமையை என்றும் நான் மறக்கேன்
மின்நெடும் புருவத்(து) இளமயில் அனையார்
விலங்கல்செய் நாடக சாலை
இன்நடம் பயிலும் இஞ்சுசூழ் தஞ்சை
இராசரா சேச்சரத் திவர்க்கே
. 8

மங்குல்சூழ் போதின் ஒழிவற நிறைந்து
வஞ்சகர் நெஞ்சகத்(து) ஒளிப்பார்
அங்கழல் சுடராம் அவர்க்கிள வேனல்
அலர்கதிர் அனையவா ழியரோ !
பொங்கழில் திருநீறு அழிபொசி வனப்பில்
புனல்துளும்(பு) அவிர்சடை மொழுப்பர்
எங்களுக்(கு) இனியர் இஞ்சிசூழ் தஞ்சை
இராசரா சேச்சரத் திவர்க்கே
. 9

தனியர்ஏத் தனைஓ ராயிர வருமாம்
தன்மையர் என்வயத் தினராம்
கனியரத் திருதீங் கரும்பர் வெண் புரிநூற்
கட்டியர் அட்டஆர் அமிர்தர்
புனிதர் பொற் கழலர்புரி சடா மகுடர்
புண்ணியர் பொய்யிலா மெய்யர்க்(கு)
இனியர்எத் தனையும் இஞ்சிசூழ் தஞ்சை
இராசரா சேச்சரத் திவர்க்கே
. 10

சரளமந் தார சண்பக வகுள
சந்தன நந்தன வனத்தின்
இருள்விரி மொழுப்பின் இஞ்சிசூழு தஞ்சை
இராசரா சேச்சரத் திவரை
அருமருந்து அருந்தி அல்லல் தீர் "கருவூர்"
அறைந்த சொல் மாலைஈ ரைந்தின்

பொருள்மருந்(து) உடையோர் சிவபதம் என்னும்
பொன்நெடுங் குன்றுடை யோரே. 11 Courtesy: Rammaruthy - Youtube

Evidence to the above References

The Standard "Meikeerththi" or 'Prasaththi' (True Glory) of Rajaraja Chola - 1, seen as a mandatory prologue to the texts of many of his Inscriptions on the walls, the pillars and elsewhere in the Chola Temples of granite structure, found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh & Sri Lanka which is as follows:

திருமகள் போலப் பெருநிலச் செல்வியும்
தனக்கே உரிமை பூண்டமை மனக்கொளக்
காந்தளூர்ச் சாலை (Kandalur Saalai) கலமருத் தருளி
வேங்கை நாடும் (Vengi country) கங்க பாடியும் (Gangapaadi)
தடிகை பாடியும் (Thadikaipaadi) நுளம்ப பாடியும் (Nulambapaadi)
குடமலை நாடும் (Kudagu country) கொல்லமும் (Kollam) கலிங்கமும் (Kalingam)
முரட்டொழில் சிங்களர் ஈழமண் டலமும் (Elamandalam)
இரட்ட பாடி ஏழரை இலக்கமும் (Irrataipaadi Ealarai Illakkam)
முந்நீர்ப் பழந்தீவு பன்னீரா யிரமும் (Munneer Palanthivu Paneeraayiram)
திண்திறல் வென்றித் தண்டாற் கொண்ட (won with strong victorious mace) தன்-10
எழில்வளர் ஊழியுள் எல்லா யாண்டும்
தொழுதகை விளங்கும் யாண்டே
செழியரைத் தேசுகொள் கோஇராச கேசரி
வன்மரான ஸரீஇராசராச தேவர்க்கு
(Sri Rajakesarivarman alias Sri Rajarajadever) யாண்டு....."
Inscription on the south outerwall of the vimanam of the Rajarajeswarem temple at Thanjavur
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 2, Inscription No: 4

".......mathi muthal Valuthiyar varai puha mattraver Theviar aluthu thuyarang kalialungap poluthiyal
Vanjiyit Kanchi vahuththa senchilai Kalingam a(m)m(ai).............puthumalar
vaakai punainthu nothumalar Gangapaadi kavvi, Kongam velipaduththaruli adipaduththiruliya
saaralmalai attunj Cheranmalai naattuth thaavadikuvattin paavadich chuvattu thudar neikkkanthukal ela
nedunat gopuram kovai kulaiya maaperum purisai vattam podi pada purisai suthai kavin padaiththa chullikai maalikai
Uthakai munol eri koluvi Uthakai Venthai kadal puka vehundu poanthu sool mandalam thola Elamandalamum
kondu thandaruli pandu thangal thiru kulaththoar thadavarai eluthiya pongu puli poaththu puthukka thunga thikkinit
senai seluththi mikka ottrai venkudai keel erattai ven kavari thettriya valainth thivala vettriyal veetriruntha thu aruliya
Venthan poatri iruntha than thamil naadan sanda paraakiraman thinthirat kandan Sembiyar perumaan senthiru madanthai man Sri Rasarasan......."
On the south, east and north walls of Virattaaneswara at Kilur in Thitukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot, Tamil Nadu.
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 7, page 433, Inscription No: 863

"......Arumolivarma (Rajaraja - 1) who with his long and beautiful arms bore the marks of Sanka and Chakra in his palms. he conquered the Gangas, Vangas, Kalingas, Magadas, Malavas, Simhalas, Andhras, Rattas (Rastrakuttas), Oddas (Odissans), Katahas, Keralas, Gaudas and Paandiyas. By the wealth obtained through his conquests he erected at Thanjanagari (Thanjavur) a very great temple (athyuttamam) named Rajarajaeswarem......"
Copper Plates on grants made to Ramanatheesvaram temple, at Esalam, Villupuram South Arcot District, Tamil Nadu
Bulletin de I'Ecole Francaise Tome LXXV :Archaeological Finds in South India / Esalam bronzes and Copper Plates - Page 14 by Dr R.Nagaswamy, former Director of Tamil Nadu Archaeological Department

"In the year Saka 934 (A.D.1012)......King called Kali Rajaraja conquered, Gangavaadi, Malenad, Nolamba, Andhra, Kongu, Kalinga and Paandiya, all becoming Chola Nad. Lamp by general Panchava Maraaya (Rajendra Chola -1) the Mahaa Dandanaayakka of Bengi and Ganga mandalas. He is (also) called Mummudi Cholana Gandhavaranam (Mumudichola Gangavarman) and said to have seized the Tuluva and Konkana, held Maleya, pushed aside the Chera, Telunga, and Rattiga......"
Inscription of the period of Rajaraja Chola - 1, at ........Temple, at Balamuri in Srirangapattna, Karnataka
Epigrapica Carnatica Vol 6, Inscription from Balamuri, Srirangapattna Inscription No: 78
Madras Epigraphical Reports - 1895, Inscription No: 5

".....Rajaraja the light of the Chola race......The illustrious Rajaraja whose valour was his wealth, having conquered by the strength of his arms the Simhala, Paandiya, Kerala kings, the lords of Konkana, the Malavas, Andhras, Gangas, Kalingas, Vangas the Magadhas, the kings of Chalukiyas, the Kurus and all others in battle, captured their elephants horses, territories diamonds and wealth.....That great armed (king)after uprooting the Bana king (equal in) prowess to Banasura cut off Bhogadeva's head. Kesava the commander Satyasiriya the equal of Kesava was captured alive by Rajaraja in battle......routed within a moment that powerful Satyasraya in battlefront.....captured all that were won by the prowess of his (Satyasraya's arm), precious stoness, the rutting elephats, horses (etc)......"
Copper Plates on Grants made by Rajendra Chola - 1 to Tribhuvanamahadevi Chathurvedimangalam.
Karandai Tamil Sangam Plates of Rajendra Chola - 1 - by Thiru (Late) K.G.Krishnan - Chief Epigraphist (Rtd), Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India

".....Arunmolivarman (Rajaraja - 1) (had)....Amarabujanga (Paandiya king) seized.....captured Vilinda (Vilinam south of Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala).....crossed the ocean by ships and (captured) the Lord of Lanka (Sri Lanka), Satyasraya (Chalukya) fled to avoid misery.....Rajaraja (defeated) that Andhra king called Bhima.....having subdued in battle the Ganga, Kalinga, Vanga, Magadha, Aratta (Maharastra), Odda, Saurashtra, Chalukya and other kings....."
Copper Plates on Grants made by Rajendra Chola - 1 to Siva temple of Thiruvaalankaadu, Tamil Nadu.
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 3, Part 3 &4 - Thiruvaalankaadu Copper Plates

(3) The birth of Rajendra Chola - 1 as the son of Rajaraja Chola - 1
(A detailed study)

Rajendra Chola was born on the Thiruvathirai nakashathiram of the month of Adi (from mid July to Mid August) as the son of Rajaraja Chola - 1 by his 'second' Queen Uthaiya Piraatiyaar Thambiran Adikal - Vaanavan Maadeviyar 'also known as' (alias) Thiribhuvanamadeviyaar. He was named as Mathuraanthahan. During his young days he learnt all aspects of warfare and administration in addition to the religious, philosopical and literary compositions under his Guru Esana Siva Pandithar. He successfully completed his studies and earned the title the 'Panditha Cholan'. Rajendra Chola - 1 as Heir Apparent (on the walls of Rajarajaeswarem Temple Thanjavur)

Evidence to the above References

“…...queen of Rajaraja the Vaanavan Maadeviyaar alias Thiribuvana Maadeviyaar, the mother of Rajendra Chola......"
On the north wall of the central shrine at Thiruvenkadu Siva temple in Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu
Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy, Inscription No 448 of 1918.

".......the queen (nam piraatiyaar) Thambiraanadigal Vaanavan Maadeviyaar (alias) Thiribuvana Maadeviyaar
Thiribuvana Maadeviyaar of Sri Rajarajadevar, the mother (thangal aachchi) Udaiya piraatiyaar of Sri Rajendra Choladevar......"
On the wall of the Thiruvenkaadu temple in Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu.
South Indian Inscrptions – Vol V, Inscription No: 982 (A.R. No 117-A of 1896)

" (donated) by Uthaiya Piraatiyaar Thiribhuvanamadeviyaar mother of the king....."
Thiruvenkaadu Temple of Rajendra Chola - 1, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu.
Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy, Inscription No 460 of 1908.

".....This Rajaraja's son (Rajendra Chola - 1) made the village Agrahara called Tribhuvanamahadevi (Chathurvedimangalam) after his mother's name fertile by the flow of enormous and sweet waters of Kaveri along with other villages with its quarters......"
Copper Plates on Grants made to Thiribuvana Maatheviiswarem (also known as 'Karanthai Thamil Sangam Plates')
Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India - No 79 by K.G.Krishnan - Former Chief Epigraphist

"....Shythiriya sikamani valanaattu Thiruvarur Kuttraththu Thiruvaarudaiyaar Sri Mulasthaanam Udaiyaarkku .....Udaiyaar.....Aiyyar pirantha arulina Appikai (Aippasi) Sadaiya thiruvilaa" varaivukku thirumulai attavum theerththaththukku Thirusunnam idikkavum "Naam pirantha Aadi Thiruvaathirai 'Thirunaalil' thiruvilaa varaivu kurumulai attalavum......"
Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 on the west wall of the Mulasthaanam Udaiyaar Shrine,
of Thiyagarajar temple at Thiruvaarur, Tamil Nadu.
Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy - Inscription No: 674, of the Year 1919

(4) Family Structure of Rajendra Chola and Matrimonial alliances

Rajendra Chola's Aunt

Rajendra Chola had an aunt (father's elder sister) known as Kundaviyaar was married to the Bana (Vaanar) king named Vaana Kovaraiyan. She and Rajaraja Chola - 1 were the daughter and son of Sunthara Cholan (Paranthaha - 2) also known as 'Pon Maalikai thunjiya Thevar'.

Evidences on the above references

"......Hail! Prosperity! (Swasti Sri) Until the third year (of the reign) of Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Soradeva (Choladeva), Arvar (Alvar) Parantakan Kundavaiyar (who was) the venerable elder sister of the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva (and) the great queen of Vallavaraiyar (Vallava Araiyar = Bana king) Vandyadevar, gave to the images which she had set up herself, - gold which was weighed by the stone (used in) the city and called (after) Adavallan, and jewels which were weighed by the jewel weight called (after) Dakshina-Meru-Vitankan........"
Inscription at Rajarajaeswarem temple at Thanjavur.
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 2, Part 1, Inscription No 8

".....Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias the lord (udaiyar) Sri-Rajendra-Soradeva, - Alvar Parantakan Kundavaiyar, (who was) the venerable elder sister of the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva (and) the great queen of Vallavaraiyar ......"
Inscription on the south wall of the seconf tier of the central shrine of Rajarajaeswarem, Thanjavur
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 2, Inscription No: 7

"......Sri Kovi Rajarajakesaipanmaraana Sri Rajarajadevarkku aandu 23 aavathu Udaiyaar Ponmaalikaithunjiya Thevar thirumakalaar Sri Paranthakan Kunthavi Piraatiyaar......'
Inscription on Varatharajaperumal temple at Thathapuram, Tamil Nadu
Avanam Journal - Ithal 17, Article 12, Thathapuram Kalvettukal by N.Venkatesan & Muthu Ethirasan.

".......Kundavi-Jinalaya built by Parantakan Kundavaip-Piraattiyar, daughter of Ponmaligait-tunjna-Dever in the city of Rajarajapuram in Nallur Nadu......"
Inscription of Rajaraja Chola - 1 at Kundavi Jinalaya temple at Dadapuram in South Arcot district in Tamil Nadu
Annual Report on Epigraphy - Year 1919, Ins No: 8

Rajendra Chola's Step-Brother

Rajendra Chola had one brother (name not known but subsequently bore the title Gangaikonda Cholan) and the son of Rajaraja Chola by which queen too is still uncertain.

Evidences on the above references

On we studying through the Meikeerthis of Rajathiraja Chola – 1 and
Rajendra – 2 we note the following references respectively:

“…..Siriya Thaathaiyaiyum, Thiruth Thamaiyanaiyum………sudar mani
mahutam sootti padar puhal aangu avarkku avar naaduaruli……”
South Indian Inscriptions – Vol 3, Part – 1, No 28, page 53 of
Rajathiraja Chola – 1

“……Siriya Thaathai aahiya erivali Gangaikonda Cholanai pongikal
Irumudi Cholan entrum…..”
SouthIndian Inscriptions – Vol 3, Part – 1, No 29, page 58 of
Rajendra Chola – 2

Rajathiraja Chola – 1 and Rajendra Chola – 2 are both the sons of
Rajendra Chola – 1. Hence both their Meikeerthi’s referring seperately to their
“Sriya Thaathai” meaning Father’s younger brother (Thaathai
= Father) clearly shows their father Rajendra Chola – 1 had a young
brother. In these references it is mentioned only as Thaathai and not as
Thaathaiyar in plural sense. Hence it indicates Rajendra Chola had only
one brother.


The father of Rajendra – 1 was Rajaraja – 1. Hence it is very clear that
Rajaraja Chola – 1 had one more son other than the Rajendra Chola – 1,
whose real name is not known to us from the inscriptions or otherwise as
yet. But we are aware of his two titles namely one as “Gangai konda
Cholan” given by Rajendra Chola – 1 on his successful expedition up
to the Ganges river during the period Rajendra Chola – 1, and as
“Irumudi Cholan” during the period of Rajendra Chola – 2. While
he being a son of Rajaraja Chola – 1 we are not aware to which of his
Queens he was born.

Rajendra Chola's Sisters

Rajendra Chola - 1 also had a sister by the name Arunmoli Chandramalli (by which queen of Rajaraja Chola too still not known) the eldest among the three sisters - who was given in marriage to the Ganga king ...... The Middle sister was named........ The third sister named Kundaviyaar born to the Queen Dantisakthi Vitantahi alias Loka Madevi, by Rajaraja was given in marriage to the Vengi king Vishnuvardanan.

Evidences and Detail study on the above references

" the twenty secondth year of Rajaraja - 1 …..the gold `eechchoppi’ gifted to
Oloka Maadevieswaram Udaiyar by Arumoli Chanthiramalli alias `Gangamaadevi’ daughter
of Udaiyar Sri Rajarajadevar….”
Inscription from Oloka Maadevieswaram at Thiruvaiyaaru – Extracted
from the Research Book titled Thiruvaiyaaru – by Dr S.Rajagopal
(Former Senior Epigraphist – Tamil Nadu Archaeological Department,


Arumoli Chanthramalli in all probability has to be the eldest among the
three daughters of Rajaraja. This could be further surmised by the fact
that normal “tendency or desire” among many fathers to associate
his name partly with that of their eldest daughter. The real name of
Rajaraja was Arumolithevan. Hence on this basis we could deduce that
Rajaraja named his eldest daughter with part of his name Arumoli
pre-fixed to the name of Chanthiramalli to end up as Arumoli

The renowned Scholar in South Indian Epigraphy Dr S.Rajagopal in his reasearch study has pointed out that – like how Kundavi married the Vengi king, Chanthiramalli married the Ganga king of
that period which is gleaned fromthe above inscription.

But there is no evidence to say as to which Queen of Rararaja she was
born to. Could ”Arumoli Chanthiramalli” been the daughter of
Queen Panchavan Mahaadevi, being one among the three senior principal
queens ???. Only discovery of any possible new inscriptions could throw
light on same.

“in the twentyfifth year of Rajaraja Chola.……gifts of ornaments by Rajarajadeva’s Queen
Dantisakthi-Vitanki alias Loka Mahaadevi, his daughter Kundavi the queen
of Vimaladityadeva, and his middle daughter Maadevadigal to the shrine
Kshetrapaladeva which has been built by the king….”
Inscription No 633 from Thiruvalanjuli Temple, Tamil Nadu
Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy - Year 1902 Inscription No: 633


At the time of gifting of (jewellery) ornaments by Dantisakthi-Vitanki at the
Kshetrapaladeva shrine. Hence it appears that Kundavi and Maadevadigal
would have been the daughters of Dantisakthi, which would have made them
to be present at the time of gifting of the ornaments by their mother to
the shrine. We are already aware Rajaraja Chola had three daughters. In
this inscription it has been clearly pointed out that Maadevadigal was
the `middle daughter’ of Rajaraja, and possibly would have been
the eldest daughter of Dandi-sakthi. Still no clue as to whom the daughter Maadevadigal was married.

Rajendra Chola's Queens, Royal Consorts

The queens of Emperor Rajendra Chola -1 were Mukkok-Kilanadikal (Empress) who bored a maiden name Sutthamalli prior to becoming a Empress, Arindavan Maadeviyar, and Vira Maadeviyar, Ulakudaiyaal, and his royal consorts were Nakkan Sembiyan Maadeviyar, Anukki Nakkan Paravaiyaar and Anukki Suriya Panchavan Maadevi.
There had been also a royal consort of this Emperor named Solakulavalli - a female cook of Rajendra Chola selected within the Royal Household (Udaiyar Sri Rajendra Chola Devarkku thiruvamudu adum Pendaatti)


Anukki or Anukkiyaar = very intimate and most trustworthy Female Secretary
Anukkan = very intimate and most trustworthy Male Secretary
Nakkan = Naattiya Mangai (Female Dancer)
Penndaatti = Female Cook. "Penn" who works in charge of the "Attil" (kitchen) was known as 'Penndaatti' but not necessarily be a wife. But with respect to kings the Penndaatti (female cook) was selected from within the royal houshold, and also to ensure their trustworthiness and whole hearted service in respect of food preparation to these kings, sometimes they made them too as one of their Royal Consorts.

Evidences on the above references

".....Rajendra's queen was by name Suddhamalli (Suththamalli).....By her the king had four sons. By their virtues and characteristics the sons were equal to their father the king. They were Rajaraja, Jayankonda Chola, Dabhrasabhadhipa and Vira Chola. Among these four the first one Rajaraja even when he was young went to heaven......"
Copper Plate on Grants to Rajendrachola Iswarem (present Kailasanathar temple) at Thiruvinthalur, Mayiladuthurai, in Tamil Nadu.
Thiruvinthalur Ceppedukal - Translation of the Sanskrit portion by S.Sangaranaarayan, Published by Tamil Nadu Archaeological Department, Chennai

" the fourth year of Parakesarivarman alias Rajendradeva (Rajendra - 1) while seated on thr throne "Kaduvetti" in the palace Keralan Maligai" he settled the expenditure of the income of devadana villages which belonged to the temples of Kanyakumari Rajarajaeswarem and Rajaraja perumsalai on the Janmanakshaththira festival of his queen Kilaanadikal......"
Inscription in the second pirakara of Kanyakumari temple. Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu
Annual Report on South indian Epigraphy - 1896, No 105

" for worship and offering to Pataliswaram Udaiyaar by Paranthakan Suththamalliyaar alias Mukkok-Kilaanadikal for the kings success, the king being present in the temple of Rajarajewarem Udaiyaar at that time....."
Inscription at Pataliswaram Udaiyaar temple at Brahmadesam, South Arcot, Tamil Nadu.
Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy - 188, 1918


From the first reference (from Inthalur Cheppedukal) it is evident that Rajendra Chola - 1 queen was Suddhamalli (Suththamalli) who was the mother of four sons the last three of whom are well known to us as Rajathiraja Chola - 1 (who bore the title Jeyamkonda Chola), Rajendra Chola - 2 (who bore name Dabhrasabhadhipa (Chitrambalavan) his name prior to being heir apparent, and Vira Chola (who bore the title Virajendra Chola). From the second reference (from Kanyakumari Inscription) it is evident that Rajendra Chola - 1 queen was also known as Kilaanadikal. From the third reference (Brahmadesa Inscription) it is evident Rajendra Chola's queen was Paranthakan Suththamalliyaar alias Mukkok-Kilaanadikal. From the foregoing it is evident that Mukkok-Kilaanadikal was the mother of well known successive Chola Emperors namely the Rajathiraja - 1, Rajendra - 2 and Virararajendra. Hence it is now conclusively proved that Emperor Rajendra Chola's -1 chief queen was - Empress "Mukko-Kilaanadikal" - a doubt which has perplexed the Historical Scholars of Tamil Nadu for long up to the time of discovery of the "Inthalur Cheppedukal".

Evidences on the above references

"In the 17th year of Parakesarivarman alias Udaiyar Sri-Rajendracholadeva - I (A.D.1028).....the setting of an image of the god Kshettirapalar in the temple of the god Tirunallamudaiya-mahadevar of Tirunallam, a Brahmadeyam in Vennadu in Uyyakkondar-valanadu, by the queen Arinthavan Mahadevaiyar.....with a gift of land for worship of the same deity by the queen....."
Inscription of Thirunallamudaiyaar Temple, at Konerirajapuram, Thanjavur Taluk, Tamil Nadu
Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy - 1909, Inscription No: 632

"......Ko-Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Rajendra Choladevarkku yaandu 17 vathu (seventeen)......Nampiraattiyaar Arinthavan Mahadeviyaar - Pendaatti (Female Cook) 'Poovan Alaku' vaiththa thirinonthaa vilakku......"
Inscription on the South Wall of the Mulesvara Temple, at Bahur, Tamil Nadu
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 7, Inscription No:801

".......gifted by Ulakudaiyaal queen of (one) who took Gangai, Kidarem and Purvadesam....."
On the west and south walls of the shrine of Konerirajapuram temple in Thanjavur Taluk, Thanjavur District North

".....In the third year of the Chola king Parakesarivarman alias Sri Rajendra Choladeva land was gifted to the temple by Nakkan Sembiyan Madeviyar queen of Rajendra Choladeva....."
Inscription on the north wall of the mantapa opposite the central shrine at Thiruvisalur temple at Kumbakonam Taluk, Tamil Nadu.
Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy - 1907, Inscription No: 348

There is an inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 on this wall of first thiruchuttru which states, one of the Royal Consorts namely Nakkan Paravaiyaar provided grants of 44 veli of land and 305 kasu for recitation of "Thiruththondar Thokai" Pathikam during the Thiruvaathirai Thiruvilaa and for feeding rice for 1000 worshippers in the month of Aani to this Thillai perom koyil.

"In the 24th year......fifty sheep for a lamp by Solakulavalli the royal consort who cooks (tiruvamuthu adum pendaatti) for Udaiyaar Rajendra Choladever......"
Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 at Kanyaakumari Temple
Travancore Archaelogical Series - Vol 1, page 161

Rajendra Chola's Sons and Daughters

Rajendra Chola - 1 in turn had four sons Rajaraja, Rajathiraja Chola - 1, Rajendra Chola - 2, Virarajendra - [/u]by the Queen Mukkokilanadikal, who had a 'maiden name' as Suddamalli (Sutthamalli in Tamil)[/u] and a daughter by the name Amangai (also known as Amangadevi) and Arumoli Nangaiyaar alias Piraanaar by the Queens Ulakudaiyaal and Arindavan Madeviyaar.

Among the sons the eldest being "Rajaraja" was made to rule Kerala with the title "Chola Keralan" (A.D.1016-1018) but still was not appointed as the Heir Apparent to Chola throne. However he was re-called in by Rajendra Chola - 1 for their war with Ahavamalla the Western Chalukiya king where he died at a very young age during the life time of his father Rajendra Chola - 1. A Pallipadai temple named Jayamalliswarem was built in memory of him at present Vandavaasi in Tamil Nadu. Immediately after his death Rajendra Cholan realised the importance of a Heir Apparent and appointed Rajathiraja Cholan - 1 (A.D.1018-1044) as Heir apparent to Chola throne and also made him a viceroy of Paandiya Nadu at Madurai.

His daughter Amangai was given in marriage to Prince Rajaraja Narendra of Vengi kingdom. This kingdom was situated between the Krishna and Tungabadra in the present east Andhra Pradesh. Incidently the Prince Rajaraja Narendra's mother too was a Chola princess the daughter of Rajaraja Chola - 1 named Kundavi who married the Eastern Chalukya king Vishnuvardanan.
Image of Prince Rajaraja (Chola Kerala Thevar) eldest son of Rajendra Chola - 1 from Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer temple, the rightmost among the four sculptures on this face.. The close-up of Chola Keralan image

Photo Courtesy: Thiru Logukrishnan

Evidences on the above references

".....Rajendra's queen was by name Suddhamalli (Suththamalli).....By her the king had four sons. By their virtues and characteristics the sons were equal to their father the king. They were Rajaraja, Jayankonda Chola, Dabhrasabhadhipa and Vira Chola. Among these four the first one Rajaraja even when he was young went to heaven. The king (Rajendra) made his (second) son the husband of Lakshmi a princess born of the Paandiya dynasty who was slendourous and had large pur ornamants. the king made his son Jayankonda the lord of extensive fortune of the Paandiya dynasty the lord of the extensive fortune the Chola viceroy of Paandiya country....."
Copper Plate on Grants to Rajendrachola Iswarem (present Kailasanathar temple) at Thiruvinthalur, Mayiladuthurai, in Tamil Nadu.
Thiruvinthalur Ceppedukal - Translation of the Sanskrit portion by S.Sangaranaarayan, Published by Tamil Nadu Archaeological Department, Chennai


".....gifted a pearl umbrella by Mathuranthaka Devan Arumoli Nangaiyaar alias Piraanaar daughter of Rajendra Chola Deva....."
Inscription on the walls of Thirumalapaadi Temple, Thirutchraapalli, Tamil Nadu
Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy - Year 1920, Inscription No:71


The Photo below could be the Bronze Image of Rajendra Chola's Mother, Step Mothers, Queens, Sisters or Daughter which has to be verified. With Courtesy: Mukul Banerjee Photo Gallery

(5) Emperor Rajaraja Chola - 1 appoints his son Rajendra Chola - 1 as heir-apparent to Chola Empire

Towards the latter part of Rajaraja Chola's rule in the year A.D.1011, he appointed his only son Rajendra Chola - 1 as his next successor to the Chola throne and his co-regent.

Evidences on the above references

"Sri Svasti Saka varsha 'vombhay nura nal vatta mure neya' varishada Ravdri(a) Samvatsarada
Ashadha masada punnave Uttarashada nakashatram maka-
-ra chandram Brihaspati varam Sri Mudikonda Rajendra Cholam rajyam
geyyuttire Iyandu ombhatta....."

Translation of the above

"Thursday the moon being in Makara the nakshatra being Uttarashada during the full moon thithi of the month Ashadha in the Raudra year the Nine hundred Forty third year of the Saka years in the nineth year of reign of he year the glorious Mudikonda Rajendra Chola....."
Epigraphia Carnatica - Vol 6, Inscription No 03.
On a stone at Banesvara temple at Belaturu in Heggadadevankote in Mysore, India


From the above Inscription it is very clear the 9th of Rajendra Chola - 1 was Saka year 943 which is (943-1) + 78 = A.D.1020. Hence the Year of appointment of Rajendra Chola - 1 as the heir to the Chola throne was 1020-9 = A.D.1011.
943th Saka Year means 942 full years + 1 incomplete year
Hence actual completed full Saka Years in the above case = (943 - 1) 942
The Indian Scholars of History has already determined that Saka full completed Years + 78 = A.D. full completed Years.
Hence 942 Saka full completed years = (942 + 78) A.D.1010 full completed years.
Hence 943rd Saka Year in the above = A.D.1010 + 1 = A.D.1011

The general rule for Saka year conversions are:,

(1) The (prevailing Saka Year - 1) + 78 = prevailing A.D.Year
(2) The prevailing A.D. Year - prevailing Saka Year = The prevailing year of the Event of the specific event.

Further Evidence to the above References

"....In the twenty second year of king Parakesarivarman alias the glorious Rajendra Choladeva who conquered the Purvadesam,, the Gangai and Kadarem - on Sunday Mula during the first thithi of the bright fortnight of Margasira in the Srimukha year, the 955thof the hundreds of years passed from the time of the Saka king....."
Epigraphia Indica - Vol 6, Chapter 3, Inscription No 33.
On another stone at Banesvara temple at Belaturu in Heggadadevankote in Mysore, India

".....On Monday the nakshatra being Svathi during the Kalashtami (tithi) of the month of Ashadha in the Isvara year the 959th Saka year - in the twenty sixth year of glorious Mudigonda Gangegonda Rajendra Choladeva.....'
Epigraphia Indica - Vol 6, Chapter 3, Inscription No 34.
On a Arkesvara temple at Ankanatpura at Heggadadevankote in Mysore, India

[continued in Part - 2]


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