The great Significance of Kodungallur of Kerala : Part - 4

Thread started by virarajendra on 11th February 2010 02:41 PM



Author - Virarajendra
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The great Significance of Kodungallur of Kerala in the history of Kerala & Tamil Nadu
Part - 4


(23) Period of Ravivarma Kulasekaran at Kodungallur

The Chera king Rajasekara alias Cheraman Perumal Nayanar was followed by his son the king Ravi Varma Kulasekaran alias Sthanu Ravi (alias Ko-Kandan) {A.D.844 - 885} on the Chera throne at Mahodayapuram. Sthanu Ravi too was a Saivite like his father. He had a daughter by the name KoKilaanadigal who married king Vijayaragavadeva from another Chera royal family ruling a part of Kerala.

The Chera kings of this period, had very friendly relations with the Chola country. The Sthanu Ravi and his daughter both being of Saivite faith, and with the prevailing good relations that existed with the Chola country, had made their endowments to the Siva temples in the Chola country

In the year A.D.849 during the rule of the Chera king Sthanu Ravi also known as Ravi Varma Tribuvanachakravarti Kulasekaradeva, the villagers of the Chalukkipparu has gifted a village named Satanur in the Thondainadu to the temple of Siva named as Tiruayanisuramudaiya Nayanar.

The Chera Queen Kilanadigal provided gold for a lamp at the temple of Thiruvannamalai in Thondaimanadu (adjacent to Chola country) in the year A.D..851. The Chera king (Ko)Kandan Ravi alias Sthanu Ravi also gifted land for lighting lamp at the temple at Kuttralam in Pandiyanadu in the year in the year A.D.870.

In A.D.871. During the period the Chera king Sthanu Ravi, assisted Athiththa Chola who waged war on Kongunadu and jointly captured it from the Pandiyan king.

A general named Vikki Annan the chieftan of Kodumbalur was greatly instrumental in winning this war by the Cholas, and was rewarded jointly by the Chola & Chera kings with a crown, palace, elephants, royal palanquin, drum and the given the title "Sembiyan Thamil Verl".

In the year A.D 936 Ravi Nili the daughter of Chera king Vijayaragadevar (who was inturn the Son-in Law of earlier Chera king Sthanu Ravi) provided thirty kalanju (a measure) of gold for lighting lamp to the Mahadeva at the temple of Thiruvottriyur in Thondainadu which was under Chola rule.

The above are confirmed by the following references:

"......(during the Chola king Rajakesarivarman (Aditya Chola) who extended his territory to Thondai Naadu).....Vikki Annan the chief of Kodumbalur on whom was bestowed the title Sembiyan Tamilaverl together with the distinguishing marks of dignity, by the Chola king and by the Chera (Seramaan) Sthanu Ravi. The marks of royal dignity included the fly-whisk, palanquin, drum, bugle, elephants etc......"

Inscription on the wall of Thiruneyattanathu temple at Tillasthanam at Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu.
Inscriptions of the Madras Presidency - by V. Rangacharya, Vol 11, Page 1413, Ins No: 1403 (286 of 1911)


".....in the fifth year
(A.D.844 + 5 = A.D.849) of Ravivarman alias Tribhuvanachakravartin Kulasekaradeva....the gift of the village of Sattanur in Irumbedu-nadu a district of the villagers of Chalukkiparru to the temple of Tiru- Ayanisuramudaiya- Nayanar....."

Inscription north wall of Brahmapuisvara temple at Valuvur in North Arcot district, Tamil Nadu
Inscriptions of the Madras Presidency - by V. Rangacharya, Vol 1, Page 120, Ins No: 714 (54 of 19080


(24) Period of Ramavarma Kulasekaran at Kodungallur

Towards this time with the demise of the Chera king Rama Varma, the king Kothai Ravi Varma {A.D.917-947} succeeded on the Chera throne at Mahodayapuram the capital of Kudamalainadu in Kerala country.

Towards the middle of Athiththa Chola’s rule the Chera king Sthanu Ravi died and was followed by Rama Varma Kulasekara {A.D.885-917} on the Chera throne.

the Chera king Sthani Ravi died and was followed by Rama Varma Kulasekara {A.D.885-917} on the Chera throne.

A.D.907-953) on the Chola throne. He married Udaiya Pirattiyar Kokkilan Adigal daughter of the Chera king Rama Varma of Kulasekara dynasty.

Paranthaha Chola with the intention of annexing the Pandiyanadu waged war with Pandiya king Rajasimhan-2. In this war the Chera king Rama Varma Kulasekara assisted Paranthaha.

The above are confirmed by the following references:

(25) Period of Kothai Ravi Varma at Kodungallur

Towards this time with the demise of the Chera king Rama Varma, the king Kothai Ravi Varma {A.D.917-947} succeeded on the Chera throne at Mahodayapuram the capital of Kudamalainadu in Kerala country.

The above are confirmed by the following references:

(26) Period of Indu Kothai Varma at Kodungallur

After thirty years of rule of Kothai Ravi Varma, was followed by Indukotha Varma {A.D. 944-962} on the Chera throne at Mahodayapuram.

The above are confirmed by the following references:

(27) Period of Bhaskara Ravi Varma at Kodungallur

During this period the Chera king Indukotha Varma was succeeded by Bhaskara Ravi Varma - 1 {A.D.962-1019} at Mahodayapuram. Years later Baskara Ravi Varma - 2 {A.D.979-1014} appears to have assisted Bhaskara Ravi Varma - 1 in ruling his vast Chera empire which stretched from the present Calicut to the Tiruvananthapuram region encompassing the Kudamalainadu, Kongunadu and Venad, as his co-regent from Uthahai in the Kongu region.

The king Rajaraja -1 of the Chola country turned his attention on his conquest of Kudamalainadu of Chera country, and the Kongu region of the present Tamilnadu which was under the control of the Chera king.

He sent his forces to conquer these regions, which moved into the Kudamalainadu - the north and central regions of Kerala state and defeated Baskara Ravivarman Thiruvadi (Baskara Ravi Varaman – 1) the ruling king of the Kulasekara dynasty, and captured his capital the Makothaiyapuram (Kodungolur). It appears Baskara Ravi Varman -1 too accepted the Chola suzerainty and continued to rule from Makothaiyapuram in the Kerala country paying tributes.

Rajaraja Chola – 1 died in the year A.D.1014 and was succeeded by his son Rajendra Chola – 1 on the chola throne after being a co-regent with Rajaraja Chola from A.D1012.

During the period of Rajendra Chola – 1, in the year A.D.1019 with the agitation for freedom by the king Baskara Ravi Varman - 1 of Kerala, he sent a war expedition under the leadership of his second son Manukulakesari to Kudamalainadu in the Chera country who defeated the Chera King Baskara Ravi Varma – 1 captured his capital Mahothai and secured his crown, diadem and an island called Santhimathivu belonging to the Kerala king beyond Kerala in Arabic sea. In this war Baskara Ravi Varman - 1 met his death.

The above are confirmed by the following references:

(28) Period of Chola rule under Chola Keralan at Kodungallur

With the secure of the Chera crown the Rajendra Chola – 1 assumed the new title as Mudikonda Cholan. Rajendra Chola –1 gave the title Chola Keralan to his second son Manukulakesari and appointed him as the chola viceroy to rule the captured Kudamalai Nadu of the Kerala country.

Rajendra Chola built a new imperial capital named as Gangaikondasolapuram west of present Chidambaram and there he built his new royal palace and named it as “Keralan Maligai” commemorating his victory over Kerala kings.

The above are confirmed by the following references:

(29) Period of Vira Keralan at Kodungallur

However with the necessaity of he having to lead a war expedition with eastern Chalukiya king, he was recalled back from Chera country in the year A.D.1021, while appointing the Chera king Veera Keralan{A.D1021-1028} son of Baskara Ravi Varman to rule his country on accepting the Chola suzerainty.

With the death of Rajendra Chola – 1 in A.D.1044 his eldest son the Rajadhiraja Chola – 1 {A.D.1018-1054} who had been a co-regent of Rajendra Chola since A.D.1018 succeeded on the Chola throne. When he ascended the throne among the countries that were still under the Chola control, was the Mahodayapuram of the Kerala country.

During this period the Chera king of the Kulasekara dynasty at Mahodai were agitating to get their freedom. Rajadhiraja – 1 to contain these agitations sent forces which first proceeded to Mahodayapuram and defeated the Chera king Veera Keralan in A.D.1028, who was put to death by his elephant named Atthivaranam.

He appointed Rajasimhan {1028-1043} the son of Vira Kerala as the Chera King on he having accepted the Chola suzerainty, who continued to rule from Mahodai paying tributes to Cholas, and had friendly relations with them for some time.

The above are confirmed by the following references:

"......vaar alaviya kalal Virakeralanai munaivayit pidiththu than aanaikku iduviththu Aththivaaranana kalittraal uthaippiththuaruli....."

"......midal elu Villavan kudarmadi kndu than naadu vittu oadi kaadu pukku olppa Vanji am puthumalar malainthu aangu enjalil velaikelu Kanthalur Saalai kalam aruppiththu....."


(30) Period of Bhaskara Ravi – 3 {A.D.1043-1082}

Rajasimha was followed by Bhaskara Ravi – 3 {A.D.1043-1082}on the Chera throne.

In the year A.D.1054 Rajadiraja Chola –1 died in the battle field at Koppam. Immediately his younger brother Rajendra Chola – 2{A.D.1051-1063} who was the co-regent with Rajadhiraja Chola – 1 from A.D.1051, crowned as the next Chola in the battle field itself and continued with the war with success to Cholas.

During this period one of his sons was given the title Chola Keralan in memory of his elder brother Manukulakesari who bore the same title as Chola Keralan.

The above are confirmed by the following references:

"....vadathisai Gangaiyum thenthisai Ilankaiyum, kudathisai Makothaiyum kunathisai Kadaramum thandinil konda thaathai than mandalam venkudai nilal ena thankudai nilatri thisai thorum sengol ochchi........"

".....velaikkelu Kanthalur saalai kalam aruththapin......'

Inscription of Rajhadhiraja Chola - 1
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 3, Part 1, Page No: 64, No: 30


(31) Period of Virarajendra {A.D.1063-1070}

With the demise of Rajendra –2, Virarajendra Chola {A.D.1063-1070} was crowned as the next king of the Chola empire. On he ascending the Chola throne, again the Cheras at Venad and Mahodayaouram started agiatating to free themselves from the Chola fold. Virarajendra first sent an expedition to Venad and killed the younger brother of the Kerala king named Jananathan, while the king himself escaped from his country.

Later with the agitation also from the Chera king Bhaskara Ravi – 2, it necessiated Virarajendra Chola to go on a renewed war expedition to the great cities of the Chera country namely the Uthahai and Mahodai with big elephant cavalry to suppress the agitation. The Chera king in fear escaped with his family to safety. He defeating the Chera country returned back with much tributes, elephants and maids.

With the death of Virarajendra his son Adirajendra {A.D1070-1074} succeeded on the Chola throne in A.D.1070, after being his co-regent from A.D1067. His period of rule ended within a short period of few months due to illness.

The above are confirmed by the following references:

"......kalat Keralan thannai Sananaathan thambiyai poarkalaththu angal sool pasunthalai arinthu......"

"......Uthakaiyit Keralar thang kula sengeerai yodum ver ara parinththodi melka kadal veela......'

Inscription of Virarajendra at......
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 3, Part 1, Page No: 64, No: 30


(32) Period of of Baskara Ravi Varma - 3

After the death of Adirajendra there has been a turmoil in the Chola country with no direct male decendents in the line of the Rajaraja Chola -1 to succeed.

Eventually the great-grandson of Rajaraja Chola - 1, namely Kulothunga Chola - 1 {A.D.1074-1120} became the rightful heir to the chola throne hailing from the female decendents of Rajaraja in the year A.D.1074.

Taking opportunity of the turmoil in the Chola country the Chera kings at Aynad, Venad and Kudamalainadu agitated to gain freedom from from the Chola kings.

Kulothunga Chola - 1 in A.D.1081 waged war with the Cheras. He captured Vilignam, Kanthalursalai including Kottaru north of Kumari all of Ayenadu. The Chera king agreed to rule as a subordinate king and pay tributes. At Kottaru in south Kerala country he stationed a “Nilappadai” (ground force) known as Kottaru Nillapadai under the general Araiyan Mathuranthahan alias Chola Keralarasan.

Kulothunga Chola’s forces further moved to Mahodayapuram in Kudamalainadu of the Kerala country and defeated the Chavar forces (suicide sqads) of Baskara Ravi Varma - 3 who also met his death in this war in A.D.1082.

The above are confirmed by the following references:

"......Kudamalai naatulla Chaver ellaam thani visumbu eara maa eariya than maruthanit thalavarai kurukalar kulaiya Koattaaru utpada nerithorum nilaikal ittu aruli thiralkol veerasimmaasananth thiriya vittaruli.....'

Inscription of Kulothunga Chola - 1 at......
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 3, Part 1, Page No: 68, page141


(33) Ravi Rama Varma {A.D.1082-1090

He was succeeded by Ravi Rama Varma {A.D.1082-1090} on the throne with his acceptance to pay tribute to Cholas. This above are confirmed by the following references

The above are confirmed by the following references:

(34) Rama Varma Kulasekara {A.D.1090 – 1102}

He was followed by Rama Varma Kulasekara {A.D.1090 – 1102} at Mahodayapuram throne. It appears some time after A.D.1090 Rama Varma Kulasekara with his powerful Chavar forces defeated the Cholas and regained full power in Kudamalainadu. It seems Kulothunga Chola - 1 didnot take any serious attempt to regain the lost territories of the Kerala country. It appears this was the ending point of 100 years of intermittant war between the Cholas and the Cheras.

The above are confirmed by the following references:

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