Kudamulukku Peru Vilaa (Maha Kumbhaabishekam) at Gangaikondacholeswarer Thirukkoyil 2

Thread started by virarajendra on 22nd April 2017 01:51 PM




The Inscriptions at Gangaikonda Choleswarem Temple complex 'as classified' by the Scholar "Dr Daud Ali" of the University of Pensilveniya, USA

Inscriptions on the Central Shrine

(1) King/Date - Virarajendradeva, Year - 5 (1068 AD)
Dynasty - Chola
Details - Mutilated. Records the kings order issued when he was in his palace at Kanchipuram
relating to a number of villages assigned as tevatana to the temple of Gangaikondacholiswarem.
essary entries were madein tax registers regarding these villages by a number of King's officers.
Some of the villages had been assigned to the temple in the reigns of Rajendra - 1 and Rajadhiraja
Minute details of the assessment of all the assigned villagesare given in the Inscription.
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda, padma, and jagadi of the north and west walls of central shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 529 ARE 82 of 1892

(2) King/Date - Kulottunka - 1, Year - 41 (1111 AD)
Dynasty - Chola
Details - Damaged and unfinished Tamil and Grantha inscription, beginning with the meykkirrtti of king beginning with the words
"pukal culnta" and followed after the date by two verses of a Gahadvala prasasti.
Location (confirmation) - on the west wall of the central shrine of the main temple.Located
Publication - Unpublished ARE of 29 of 1908

(3) King/Date - Kulottunka - 1, Year - 49 (1119 AD)
Dynasty - Chola
Details - Beginning of each line lost. Commences with the poetic introduction beggining pukalmatu vilanka.
Records gift by thr king of land as devatana-iraiyili in Cungatavirnta-colanallur to a temple of Rajendra Chola Isvaramudaiyar at pottali matam. the gift was made by the king while he was in his palace at Gangaikondacholapuram on a petition made by a ascetic (tapasi0 of the temple that the services were at a standstill for want of endowments.
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the west wall of the central shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 527 ARE 80 of 1892

(4) King/Date - Konerinmai-kondan Sundara Pandiyadeva - 2, Year - 2 (1253 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Registers remission of all taxes and dues on number of lands belonging to the temple to .conduct services in temple called Sundara pandya Sabdhi. Lands were free from taxes such as minpattam, tari-irai, tottapattam, katai ayam etc
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the south wall of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 524 ARE 77 of 1892

(5) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 5 (1273 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Incomplete. Records the sale of lands belonging to number of individuals to temple Gangaikondacholisvaram.
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the south wall of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 525 ARE 78 of 1892

(6) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892

(7) King/Date - Konerimai-kontan Vikrama-Pandyadeva, Year - 6 (1289 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - -Registers gift of 20 veli of land by the king for a special service called Rajakkanayan-Sandi instituted after the name of the king as tax free land to the temple authorities of the temple of -Udaiyar at Gangaikontacolapuram in Mannaikontacola-valanadu in Vikramacolavalanatu..."
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the south wall of main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 523 ARE 76 of 1892

(8) King/Date - Tribhuvanacakravartin, Year - ? (???? AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Probably belongs to reign of Sundera Pandiya
Location (confirmation) - On the south wall of the central shrine of the main temple. Could be unidentified inscription on the mahamantapa Not Located
Publication - Unpublished ARE 31 of 1908

(9) King/Date - no king mentioned Year - Subhanu (1??? AD)
Dynasty - Vijayanagara ? (my view it could be possibly a Sambuvarayar king ?? to be verfied)
Details - Damaged. Records the gift of the Chief Tiruvenkatamudaiyan mentioned in No: 10 below. may have been a subordinate of Vijayanagara king.
Location (confirmation) - On the west wall of the central shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 528 ARE 81 of 1892

(10) King/Date - ----------------, Year - Saka 1385 expired - Subhanu (c.1463 AD)
Dynasty - Vijayanagara
Details - Damaged. Mentions one Thiruvenkatamutaiyan Ekamrannatha Gangeyan of Vaippur, a chief who seems to have been in control of this area at the end of fifteenth century.
Location (confirmation) - On the padma of the west wall of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 526 ARE 79 of 1892

(11) King/Date ----------- , Year Saka 1384 Exp (1462 AD)
Dynasty - Vijayanagara
Details - much damaged; mentions Devaraya once and mallikarujunaraya twice.
Location (confirmation) - On the west wall of the Central shrine of the main temple. Located
Publication - Unpublished ARE 83 of 1908.

(12) King/Date - Praudha Virupaksaraya, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Vijayanagara
Details - Son of Mallikarjuna
Location (confirmation) - On the right of the entrance in the north wall of the same pirakara. Not Located
Publication - SII 4, 530 ARE 83 of 1892

Inscriptions on the Mahamandapa

(13) King/Date - Adirajendra, Year ----- (In my viewthe date should be between 1066 - 1070 A.D)
Dynasty - Chola
Details - Fragmentary. Mentions Talikkulam (old word for Tanjavur]. Seems to record provisions made for a perpetual lamp probably by one Marutan, a pendatti of the Thirumancanattar velam. This women is also mentioned in No: 29 below (326 of 1965)
Location (confirmation) - Built onto the southern steps of the platform abutting the central shrine of the main temple.
Publication - Unpublished ARE 323 of 1965

(14) King/Date - [Kulottunka II, Year] - ------ (------ AD)
Dynasty - Chola
Details - Fragmentary. Contains portions of the meykkirti beginning pumevalar... Seems to record grant of land for the procession of the deity during festival. Mentions the names of few mechants such as Tillaiyal(i) ati vitantakan etc and refers to Karikalasolacaturvedimangalam and a devadana iraiyili.
Location (confirmation) - Fragments built into the padma forming the base of the same platform of the mahamandapa of the main shrine.
Publication - Unpublised ARE 315 of 1965

(15) King/Date - [Kulottunka - III], Year - [13] (1191 AD)
Dynasty - Chola
Details - Damaged, with beginning lines lost. Commences with the eulogistic introduction puyal vayttu, indicating it is probably dated to the reign of Kulottunka - 3. Refers to a royal writ and an installation in the temple. Mentions Virudarajabhayanka valanatu and Merkal - [natu].
Location (confirmation) - On the mahamandapa, east wall, outer tier, on kumuda of northeast corner of mahamandapa.
Publication - Unpublished ARE 319 of 1965.

(16) King/Date - Kulottunka - III
Dynasty - Chola
Details - Fragment. containing a portion of the historical introduction of the king.
Location (confirmation) - On the north wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine.
Publication - Unpublished ARE 32 of 1908

(17) King/Date - [Kulottunka Year ----- (---- AD)
Dynasty - [Chola] characters of twelfth century.
Details - Fragmentary. Seems to record a grant for two Sandi lams.
Location (confirmation) - Stones built into the southernsteps of the platfor abutting the central shrine of the main temple.
Publication - Unpublished ARE 324 of 1965.

(18) King/Date - Tribhuvana (cakravartin), Year - ----- (----- AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya ?
Details - End of each line mutilated.
Location (confirmation) - On the eastern wall of the mahamandapa.
Publication - Unpublished ARE 34 of 1908

(19) King/Date - ---------------------- Year - Saka 1319 (1397 AD)
Dynasty - Vijayanagara
Details - Very damaged. Records an agreement between some temple the nattar and the (tandirimar) of Paraiyur-natu and sthanattar in the temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram-utaiya-nayanar regardingsome temple lands.
Location (confirmation) - North wall of mahamandapa close to central shrine. Located. misdescribed in ARE Report.
Publication - Unpublished ARE 320 of 1965

Inscriptions on the Muhamandapa

(20) King/Date - Kulottunka -1, Year - ------ (------ AD)
Dynasty - Chola
Details - Contains two Sanskrit verses in the wherein the conquest of a fort, victory over the Pandiya and setting up of a pillar of a victory are mentioned.
Location (confirmation) - Stone fixed into the wall of the platform at the entrance into the muhamandapa. Located
Publication - Unpublished ARE 709 of 1963

(21) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892


(22) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892


(23) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892


(24) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892
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(25) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892


(26) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892


Inscriptions on the Nandi Statue

(27) King/Date - ----------- , ------ - (----- AD)
Dynasty - --------
Details - Fragmentary. Seems to record grant for a Sandhi lamp.
Location (confirmation) - Fragment built into the platform of the Nandhi. Located
Publication - Unpublished. ARE 318 of 1965.


Inscriptions on the Durga Shrine

(28) King/Date - --------- , ------ (------ AD) (In my view on a close study of the three Inscription Nos: 13, 28 and 29 put together it is noted that this Inscription belongs to the period of Adirajendra).
Dynasty - Charactors of the eleventh century, Chola
Details - Fragmentary. Seems to be parts of a record registering gifts of gold by persons including female servents (anukkiyar and pentatti) of the Tirumancanattar velam. Also refers to "Tribhuvanamatevip Perunkati"
Location (confirmation) - Fragments built into the right side doorjamb of the entrance to the Durga shrine.
Publication - Unpublished ARE 325 of 1965


(Inscriptions on the) Executive Office

(29) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892


(30) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892
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(31) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892


Inscriptions on the Gopuram

(32) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892
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(33) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892


(Inscriptions on) Other Fragments

(34) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892
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(35) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892


(36) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892
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(37) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892


(38) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892
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(39) King/Date - Ko Maravarman Kulasekharadeva, Year - 4 (1272 AD)
Dynasty - Pandiya
Details - Records the purchase of lands in Devaniputtur belonging to certain Kumaramankalam Utaiyan Civatandan
Location (confirmation) - On the kumuda of the eastern side (southern face) of the main shrine. Located
Publication - SII 4, 522 ARE 75 of 1892
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Further there are also some Inscriptions visible even today at the Lower Anicut (Dam) built across Kollidam River, as the British Engineer Arthur Cotton who built same in A.D.1836 used many dismantled granite stones from the Gangaikonda Cholapuram Temple and it's other Structures. These visible Tamil Inscriptions on the Stones and Carved Pillars used to build these Dam Walls should be transcribed and documented long before they are lost to us forever - by enthusiastic young Epigraphists of Tamil Nadu - from the Low Anicut (Dam) over Kollidam.
.

The Tamil Thevara Pathikams sung on Gangaikonda Choleswarer by Karuvur Thevar

The Saivite Sage "Karuvur Thevar" of the period of Rajaraja Cholan - 1 and Rajendra Cholan - 1 has sung 'Thiruvisaippaa' (Hyms) on these two great Siva Temples, which have now been included in the nineth Thirumurai of the twelve - Tamil Saiva Thirumuraikal.

கங்கைகொண்ட சோளேச்சரம்

அன்னமாய் விசும்பு பறந்தயன் தேட
அங்ஙனே பெரியநீ சிறிய
என்னையாள் விரும்பி என்மனம் புகுந்த
எளிமையை என்றும்நான் மறக்கேன்
முன்னம்மால் அறியா ஒருவனாம் இருவா
முக்கணா நாற்பெருந் தடந்தோள்
கன்னலே தேனே அமுதமே கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 1

உண்ணெகிழ்ந்(து) உடலம் நெக்குமுக் கண்ணா !
ஓலமென்(று) ஓலமிட்(டு) ஒருநாள்
மண்ணினின்று அலறேன் வழிமொழி மாலை
மழலையஞ் சிலம்படி முடிமேல்
பண்ணிநின்(று) உருகேன் பணிசெயேன் எனினும்
பாவியேன் ஆவியுள் புகுந்தென்
கண்ணினின்று அகலான் என்கொலோ கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 2

அற்புதத்தெய்வம் இதனின்மற் றுண்டே
அன்பொடு தன்னைஅஞ் செழுத்தின்
சொற்பதத் துள்வைத்(து) உள்ளம்அள் ளூறும்
தொண்டருக்(கு) எண்டிசைக் கனகம்
பற்பதக் குவையும் பைம்பொன்மா ளிகையும்
பவளவா யவர்பணை முலையும்
கற்பகப் பொழிலும் முழுதுமாம் கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 3

ஐயபொட் டிட்ட அழகுவாள் நுதலும்
அழகிய விழியும்வெண்ணீறும்
சைவம்விட் டிட்ட சடைகளும் சடைமேல்
தரங்கமும் சதங்கையும் சிலம்பும்
மொய்கொள்எண் திக்கும் கண்டநின் தொண்டர்
முகமலர்ந்து இருகணீர் அரும்பக்
கைகள்மொட் டிக்கும் என்கொலோ கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே ! 4

கருதிவா னவனாம் திருநெடு மாலாம்
சுந்தர விசும்பின்இந் திரனாம்
பருதிவா னவனாம் படர்சடை முக்கண்
பகவனாம் அகஉயிர்க்கு அமுதாம்
எருதுவா கனனாம் எயில்கள் மூன்(று) எரித்த
ஏறுசே வகனுமாம் பின்னும்
கருதுவார் கருதும் உருவமாம் கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 5

அண்டமோர் அணுவாம் பெருமைகொண்(டு) அணுவோர்
அண்டமாம் சிறுமைகொண்(டு) அடியேன்
உண்டவூண் உனக்காம் வகைஎன துள்ளம்
உள்கலந்(து) ஏழுபரஞ் சோதி
கொண்டநாண் பாம்பாம் பெருவரை வில்லில்
குறுகலர் புரங்கள் மூன்(று) எரித்த
கண்டனே ! நீல கண்டனே ! கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே ! 6

மோதலைப் பட்ட கடல்வயி(று) உதித்த
முழுமணித் திரள்அமு(து) ஆங்கே
தாய்தலைப் பட்டங்(கு) உருகிஒன் றாய
தன்மையில் என்னைமுன் ஈன்ற
நீதலைப் பட்டால் யானும் அவ்வகையே
நிசிசரர் இருவரோடு ஒருவர்
காதலிற் பட்ட கருணையாய் கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 7

தத்தையங் கனையார் தங்கள்மேல் வைத்த
தயாவைநூ றாயிரங் கூறிட்(டு)
அத்திலங்(கு) ஒருகூ(று) உன்கண்வைத் தவருக்(கு)
அமலரு(கு) அளிக்கும்நின் பெருமை
பித்தனென்(று) ஒருகால் பேசுவ ரேனும்
பிழைத்தவை பொறுத்தருள் செய்யும்
கைத்தலம் அடியேன் சென்னிவைத்த கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 8

பண்ணிய தழல்காய் பாலளா நீர்போல்
பாவமுன் பறைந்துபா லனைய
புண்ணியம் பின்சென்(று) அறிவினுக்(கு) அறியப்
புகுந்ததோர் யோகினில் பொலிந்து
நுண்ணியை எனினும் நம்பநின் பெருமை
நுன்னிடை ஒடுங்கநீ வந்தென்
கண்ணினுள் மணியிற் கலந்தனை கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 9

அங்கைகொண்(டு) அமரர் மலர்மழை பொழிய
அடிச்சிலம்பு அலம்பவந்(து) ஒருநாள்
உங்கைகொண் டடியேன் சென்னிவைத் தென்னை
உய்யக்கொண் டருளினை மருங்கில்
கொங்கைகொண்(டு) அனுங்கும் கொடியிடை காணில்
கொடியள்என்(று) அவிர்சடை முடிமேல்
கங்கைகொண் டிருந்த கடவுளே ! கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 10

மங்கையோ டிருந்த யோகுசெய் வானை
வளர்இளந் திங்களை முடிமேல்
கங்கையோ(டு) அணியும் கடவுளைக் கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானை
அங்கையோ டேந்திப் பலிதிரி கருவூர்
அறைந்தசொல் மாலையால் ஆழிச்
செங்கையோ(டு) உலகில் அரசுவீற் றிருந்து
திளைப்பதும் சிவனருட் கடலே. 11


Destruction of Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple during Muslim Invasion of Tamil Nadu

Under the rule of the Mugal Emperor of Delhi namely Aurangazib, his 'Military General; Allaudin Kilji invaded South India and Tamil Nadu around A.D.1310. In Tamil Nadu he raided and pillaged the Gangaikonda Cholapuram Temple a masterpiece of "Tamilian Architecture" and carried away all it's wealth.

Destruction of Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple during French Invasion of Tamil Nadu

In the year A.D.1756 the French forces who gained grounds in Tamil Nadu around Pondichery invaded the Udayar Palayam and sucessfully captured that region to themselves.

Nine years later in A.D.1765 the Nawab of Arcot invaded Udaiyaarpaalaiyam with the help of English Forces - who too have gained grounds at St George Fort region over French. During these two wars the Gangaikonda Cholapuram Temple which served as their bastions suffered much damage. However in the year A.D.1817 this temple and the region of Udaiyaar Paalaiyam was restored back to it's legitimate Ruler the Chieftain Kaalaatkal Chola Udaiyaar, who agreed to pay tributes to the English.

Destruction of Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple invasion by Nawab of Arcot and the British in Tamil Nadu

Around A.D.1860 the British Engineer Arther Cotton who was appointed by the then British Government to look into and improve the water resources, dismantled very many Granite stone slabs from 'Main Entrance Gopuram' and the connected surrounding Walls further destroying the Gangaikonda Choleswarer temple complex, without preserving the great monument of "Tamilian Temple Architectural Monument" of Cholas, but utilised same to construct a Granite Stone Dam known as Lower Anicut across Kaveri River at the point of Kollidam in Tamil Nadu.

It seems very much greater damage to the Gangaikonda Choleswarer Temple was done by the British Engineer Arther Cotton who dismantled very many granite structures of this Temple complex and reducing the Outermost Wall connected to the main Eastern Gopuram to almost half of their original heights, and have used them to build the Dams (Lower Anicut) across the Kollidam River, than the damage caused by the Muslim Invader from Delhi in the year A.D.1310. Probably young enthusiastic Archeologists and Epigraphists of the present day - if they visit these Dam Sites and inspect the Granite Stones used in construction of the Dam dismantled from sections of Gangaikonda Choleswarer Temple complex Walls and Buildings, which "can be see even today".

The following are the Photographs of the Main Gopuram of the Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple, first being how it appeared 'prior' to the British Engineers dismantling stones and destroying the Gopuram, and the second being the view of the present day 'destroyed condition' of this Gopuram and the connected Thiruchuttru Walls, after dismantling stones from them upto half their size.

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(Courtesy: Sashidharan of Facebook

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Videos on Gangaikonda Choleswarer Temple

https://youtu.be/qQFIk3cBkVY

https://youtu.be/hfBNknnzEtY

https://youtu.be/_W-acDBE1Ew

https://youtu.be/a_Opi18SEFc

https://youtu.be/KytJfXOlPb4

https://youtu.be/oXToUQtNAx4

https://youtu.be/GOtXp0hKHyU

Brief History of the rule of great "Tamil Chola Emperor - Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1011-1044) who built the "Gangaikondacholeswarer" Thirukkoyil"

Rajendra Cholan - 1(A.D.1012-1044)

The able son of Rajaraja Chola - 1 (A.D.985-1011) Rajendra Cholan - 1 initially captured the kingdoms of the Island (Goa) Santhimativu of India, whole of Maldive Islands (Palpalanthivukal), whole of Sri Lanka (Elamadalam muluvathum)

Thereafter he concentrated on the mainland India and captured the kingdoms of Banavaasi of the present west Karnataka (Vanavasi), north Karnataka (Idaithurai Nadu) and Mannaikkadakkam of north Karnataka (Mannaikonda Cholan), the Kulpark (Kollippaakai) of west Andhra, the Chalukiyan territory of south Maharaastra Irrataipaadi (Irrataipaadikonda Cholan).

After a spell of few years in A.D.1021 he made a great expedition toward the Gangetic region and towards North-West India against the continuous Muslim invasions of north-west India by Mahumad of Gazni from Afganistan, and captured more regions of then India than that by his father which included the present north Andhra (Sakkarakottam) from where his branched off into two groups. The first group of his army moved towards the Gangatic region and captured the present region of central Orrisa (Oddavishayam), the Bangaladesh and West Bengal (Vangala desam), the north Chattisgarh (Kosalai Naadu), the north Orissa (Thandabuththi), the south Jharkhand (Thakkana Laadam), and reached the great river Ganges (Gangaikonda Cholan), crossed further beyond and captured the north Jharkhand (Uttara Laadam) along the East India
.

All these victories made him construct another magnificient architectural monument - also a temple dedicated to God Siva 'entirely in granite stone' going to a height of 186 ft named "Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem", at his newly built Chola capital city named the "Gangaikonda Cholapuram", and a sacred water tank too was built for this temple named "Chola Gangam" (in the present Ariyalur district), where the water from river Ganges brought in pots after his victory over Gangetic region were poured into to make it more sacred..

The second group of his army went towards the north-west of India from Sakkarakkoattam direct to the Mathuramandalam crossing the Kalachuria, Chandella and Paramara kingdoms in between, enabled by the friendly ties the Cholas had with these countries. Chola forces thus captured the kingdoms of the present Mathura of west Uttar Pradesh (Mathuramandalam) the north Haryana (Namanaikkonam), the east Punjab of India (Panchappalli), the north Punjab also of Pakistan (Maasunidesam) and the south Kashmir (Athinagar the Purvadesam - Purva means ancient). The great Tamil Kerala Epic - Manimekalai specifically states that "Purvadesam - was in the Gandhara country" which encompassed the south Kashmir region.

The second expedition of the forces of Rajendra Cholan - 1 that went towards Mathuramandalam of north-west of India, was to assist his ally Paramara Bhoja of Malawa of south Madya Pradesh to fight against the continuous invasions of Mahumad of Gazni of west Afghanistan, and also relieve the kingdoms that already fell victims to his invasions, namely the Kanyakubja, Mathura, Namanaikkonam, Panchappalli, Masunidesam and Athinagar (Purvadesam of the Gandhara territory) the present Kashmir-Sind region of India and South Pakistan which was successfully achieved - with "Mahummad of Gazni" retreating back to "Gazni his capital in Afganistan".


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"Barathanatyam" performance by a Dancer with 'Gangaikonda Choliswarer Temple" as the background (in the Tamil Film "Neengal Kettavai" released in early 1980's)

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The above Image is that of Rajendra Chola - 1 receiving the blessings of God Siva with the dressing of Flower Garland on his Hair knots. The first two are the Images of the Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer temple

Rajendra Chola's war expedition to South-East Asian countries

Therafter he turned his attention far overseas in South-East Asia, and further undertook a big war expedition "with large fleet of ships to South & South-East Asian countries", and captured - the kingdoms of Malaysia the present Kedah and Perak states (Kadaarem) {Kadaremkonda Cholan}, the present Kelantan and Negiri Sembilan states (Valaipandur), the present Johore which included the present Singapore Island (Mayirudingam), the kingdoms of Sumatra of Indonesia the present Palembang, Lampung, states (Sri Vijaya) {Vijayamkonda Cholan}, the present Jambi, Perkanbaru states (Malaiyur), the present Banga Island in between Malaysia and Sumatra (Mevilibankam), the present region of Pane (Pannai), the present Lemuri state (Ilamuridesam), the kingdom of Pegu of south Miyanmar the former Burma (Maa-Pappaalam), the kingdoms of Thailand namely the present Langasuka state (Ilankasokam), the present Takua-Pa (Thalai-Takkolam) the present Tamalingam state (Maa-Thamalingam) and the present Nicobar & Andaman Islands (Maa-Nakkavaaram) and formed a great Chola Overseas Empire in the year A.D.1025". This is why a non-Tamil modern Historian has referred to Rajaraja Chola - 1 and his son Rajendra Chola -1 as "kings of World Stature".

https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/i...KNlO2j3sVECW6Q

Historically with the fall of the 'Sri Vijaya Empire' of 'Indonesia and Malaysia' to Cholas, the "Tamil Chola Empire" became the biggest Empire of the World of this period A.D.1025-1073, while the Chinese and the Kampuchean Empires of this same period became the 'second' and the 'third' in power.

https://youtu.be/HeAElnJNNpA

https://youtu.be/wqP9nPmftVo

The Cholas had good trade and political relations with the Chinese Empire of that period under the Buddhist Sung dynasty, the Sri Vijaya Empire of Indonesia under the Buddhist Chulamanivarman dynasty - which earlier ruled over the present Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, and with Kampuchea (Cambodia) under Hindu Suriyavarman dynasty. It was during the period of these two Tamil Chola Emperors, many Chola trade and political Embassies were sent to Imperial Courts - of the Sung dynasty of the Chinese empire and to the Sri Vijaya empire of Indonesia. Many Buddhist Monks from China and Sumatra (then Sri Vijaya) and also from Sri Lanka too visited Nagapattinam and Kanchipuram the two important Buddhist centres of Tamil Nadu.

https://youtu.be/aivTAt037lc

During the period of Rajaraja Chola - 1 and Rajendra Chola - 1, Tamil Nadu flourished in every direction with much development in Tamil - Language, Literature, Music, Dance, Drama, Temple and Civil Architecture & Construction, Sculpture (Stone & Bronze), Painting, and other Fine Arts. It was under them the Chola empire had a well knit Chola Administrative System, and had much active Overseas Trade activities especially with the South-East Asian countries and China. The Indian Religions namely the Saivaism, Vaishnavaism, Vedism, Buddhism and Jainism too flourished under their patronage

Many Tamils of the Tamil Nadu of today, are not aware of their "Glorious History" of the past and the greatness of their Traditional Tamil Kingdoms from the time immemorial, namely the Chera (in Kerala), Chola, Paandiya - kingdoms, and the kingdoms of the Thondaimandalam, Kongu and Aye (in Kerala) regions, and of the rich "Tamil Culture and Traditions" that has developed within these regions.

So it is a prime necessity that the Tamils of Tamil Nadu be made fully aware of them.





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