Kudamulukku Peru Vilaa (Maha Kumbhaabishekam) at Thiruvannaamalaiyaar Thirukkoyil

Thread started by virarajendra on 4th February 2017 07:00 AM

Kudamulukku Peru Vilaa (Maha Kumbhaabishekam) at Thiruvannaamalaiyaar Thirukkoyil


The Saivaism that developed within Tamil Nadu from the original Saivaism from Nepal - nurtured and nourished by already existing Tamil - Religious Concepts, Traditions, and Culture of the ancient Tamilians, and by the subsequent Tamil Saiva Saints of Tamil Nadu, was known as the "Tamil Saivaism" (like that developed in Karnataka was known as Vira Saivaism and that developed in Kashmir as Kashmira Saivaism).

(1) The Origin of the Thiruvannaamalai Temple

One of the prime concepts of "Tamil Saivaism" was that God Siva ("God as Siva") was represented in five element forms of the Universe a concept which developed in Tamil Nadu - as Fire, Water, Air, Earth, and Space, and was represented in his symbolic forms as Panchalingams (five Lingams) with each Lingam representing an element. Further concepts that these five elements were associated with five important Siva-Temple Shrines all being within Tamil Nadu too developed, and were known as Panchabootha Thalams (shrines). These Temple Shrines were Thiruvannaamalai (Fire), Thiruvaanaikkaa (Water), Thirukkaalaththi (Air), Kanchipuram (Earth), and Chithambaram (Space) respectively.

(2) The Origin of Thiruvannaamalai Temple and the gradual development of it's Structural Layouts with various Shrines of Deities within the Temple complex during the period of various Royal Dynasties


Thiruvannaamalai Temple traces it's origin from a period much earlier than third century A.D. prior to the period of great Tamil Saiva Saint Maanikkavaasakar Swamikal {Thiruvaathavoorar (A.D.285-317) of Tamil Nadu.
(Refer to my Research Thread in this same Mayyam Website titled "The era of the Tamil Saiva Saint Maanikkavaasaka Swamihal)"

The structures upto third prakara of this temple would have been of "burnt brick" from earlier periods, and renovated by kings and benefactors of subsequent periods. It was only during the medieval Chola period precisely during the rule of Aathiththa Chola (A.D.871-907), the Karuvarai of Annaamalaiyaar the Muhamandapam and the Mahamandapam surrounding the Karuvarai each enclosed within seperate walls and roofed have been converted into a Kattrali (granite temple).

This is confirmed by the references in the 'Anbil Cheppedukal' and in the Inscription in the Karuvarai of the Annaamalaiyar shrine which are as follows:

"....Aathiththa Chola built arrays of great temples (out) of Katkal (granite Stone) for Paraman (God Siva) who burnt the Muppuram. They were (all) tall and unperishable....."
Cholar Cheppedukal - by Pulavar Mahadevan & Munaivar Sangaranaarayanan - Tamil University, Thanjavur.
Epigraphia Indica - Vol 15, pages 44 to 72

".....Svasti Sri Ko-Rajakesaripanmar (Aathiththa Chola - 1) year (of rule) 13 (A.D.884), the (Chieftain) Vaanakovaraiyar Kunamanthan....Sitran - Puliyur Naadan gave donation of twenty kalanju thulai pon(gold) as "Thiruvannaanaatu devathaana bramadeyam" for the tank of Puliyurnaadi Chathurvedimangalam....."
Inscription on the built-in floor first Pirahara of the Annaamalaiyaar shrine, of Thiruvannaamalai temple.
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 8, Ins No: 65

This is very first dated Inscription found in the entire Annaamalaiyar Temple complex engraved on the built-in floor of the Annaamalaiyar Karuvarai (Moolasthaanam), and also being the very first inscription on endowments made to this temple after the Karuvarai and Muhamandapam, Mahamandapam, have be converted into a Kattrali during the period of Aathiththaa Chola.

Futher there are two inscriptions on endowments made by two benefactors during the period of Ko-Parakesarivarman (Paraanthaha Chola - 1) son of Aathitha Chola - 1, two inscription on the endowment made in gold for providing 99 goats for provision ghee for burning nunthaa Vilakku by Kilaan Adihal queen of Paraanthaha Chola - 1, and one inscription on endowment made by Kannaradevan brother of Paranthaha Chola - 1, (another son of Aathiththa Chola by his Rastrakuda Queen Ilangopittchi). The period of these inscriptions in the Karuvarai of Annamalaiyaar that of Athiththa Chola's period, that of Paraanthaha Chola's period, his Queen Kilaanadihal (daughter of a Tamil Chera king), Athiththa Chola's ally the Chieftain Vaanakovaraiyar all prove that the Karuvarai and Muhamandapam were made into Kattrali only during the period of Aathitha Chola.

Paranthaha Chola - 1 due to some animosity with the 'subsequent' Vaanakovaraiyar king of Vaanahapaadi after the period Athitha Chola, declared war and defeated Vaanakovaraiyar and captured his kingdom and assumed the title Vaanavatharaiyan 'Cholan the king of Vaanar' and also named the doorway of the Mahamandapam as "Vaanavatharaiyan Cholan Vaayil". Among many Shrines within the Mahamandapam there is an array of 63 - Tamil Saiva Saints of Tamil Nadu and Kerala spread partly on both sides of the Mahamandapam of the second pirakara. There are also two small Mandapas at the entrance within the Mahamandapam entrance known as 'Thevaara Paaraayana Mandapam' and 'Sabaa Mandapam'.

The first pirakarem is around the Karuvarai outer wall, and the second pirakarem is around the Mahamandapam outer wall. The third Pirakarem is outside the Mahamandapam outer wall. From second pirakara to the third pirakara there is a side doorway on the Mahamandapam outer wall leading to Unnaamulaiamman Shrine.

The Ganapathi Shrine and Murugan Shrine on the either side of entrance to the Mukha Mandapam the outer the outer boundry wall of third pirakaram and the "Kili Gopuram" are the structures set up by Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1011-1044). The original name of the present 'Kili gopuram' was "Uththama Chola Vaasal" with gopuram that is (Uththama Cholan gopuram) after one of the titles of Rajendra Chola - 1. It is in the third Pirakara wall and on this 'Uththama Chola Gopura Vassal' you find most of the Chola Inscriptions including the four different lengthy inscriptions of endowments made during the rule of Rajendra Chola - 1 to the Thiruannaamalaiyaar temple.

The fact that the Kili gopuram was earlier known as "Uththama Cholan" Gopuram named after Rajendra Cholan - 1 and earlier the Karuvari doorway was named as "Vaanavatharaiyan Cholan vaasal" after Paraanthaha Cholan - 1 are confirmed by the following two Historical references:

"....Udaiyaar Thiruvannaamalai Udaiya Nayinaarkkum Naachchiyaar Unnamulai Naachchiyaarkkum Rayer Krishnadevarayer thanmamaaka pannuviththa Thiruppani......Vaanavatharaiyan Cholan vaasal kathavu, kathavu kaal, metpadi Uththama Cholan Thiruvaasal kathavu metpadi palakanivaasalvaasal pon poosinathum......"
Inscription on the fifth prakaaram of the Thiruvannaamalai Temple.
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 8, Ins No 165

The Unnaamulai Amman Karuvarai was a structure by Kulothunga Chola - 1. The Chithambareswara Shrine, Ekaambareswara Shrine, ......arossibly the Structures set up by Rajendra Chola - 1.

All other subshrines within the "boundry wall of the third Prakara" were all were structures undoubtedly constructed by Rajendra Chola - 1. The above conclusion is confirmed by the fact that among all the Inscriptions found on the third Pirakara outer wall and on the Kili gopuram, three lengthy Inscriptions on the third Pirakara wall belonged to the period of Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1011-1044) there iThe Unnaamulai Amman Karuvarai was a structure by Kulothunga Chola - 1. s an Inscription (No... on third Pirakarem) of the period of Rajathiraja Cholan (A.D.1018-1054) and Virarajendra Chola (A.D.1063-1070) both sons of Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1011-1044) which are the earliest among all Inscriptions found on the 'third Pirakara wall'.

The Thondaimandalam region after Cholas fell into hand of the late Pallava king Kadavaraya line named Koperunsinghan -1 (A.D.1216–1242) followed by the rule of his son Kopperunchingan - II (A.D.1243-1279). It was during their period the "third Pirakaram" outer wall with the three Gopura vaayils in the north, west and south were built, and the east Gopura vaayil was not constructed by which time Koperumsinghan lost his territory to Hoysala Balaalaa the king of south Karnataka.

The southern Karnataka dynasty namely the Hoysalas who also made Thituvannaamalai district as their new capital city and the Hoysala king Viravallaalan (Hoysala Ballalaa) ruled for a period over this region. It was during his period the Vallaala Gopuram and the sorrounding walls were built around the "fourth Pirakaaram".

After Hoysalaas the Thiruvannamalai region fell into the hands of the north Karnataka kings namely of Vijayanagara. It was during the period of Krisnhnadevaraya built the eastern gopuram and the outer walls of the "fifth Pirakaram", eleven tier Gopuram, Aayiramkaal mandapam, Vasantha Mandapam, Sivagangai theertham, Thirumalaidevi Amman samudram.






Outer Raja Gopurams

The outer South Gopuram ("Thirumanjana Gopuram") was built by ...... - 1 (A.D.1364-1387) who ruled from Mathurai, after being 're-instated' by ---------- -------

The outer West Gopuram ("Peai Gopuram") was built by ----------- in A.D.1559 during the period of --------- (A.D.1559-1563) in Mathurai.

The outer North Gopuram ("Ammani Ammaal Gopuram)" was built by r (A.D.1564-1572) who demised half way through it's constuction (later known as Mottai Gopuram), and was completed by --------- in A.D.1878 during the ----- period of Tamil Nadu.

The outer East Gopuram (also known as "Raayer (Raja) Gopuram") was started in the year A.D.1512 by the Kannada Vijayanagara king Krishnadevaraaya (A.D.1509-1529) and completed in the year A.D.1590 by Nayakkar king Sevappan (A.D.1520-1560) who ruled from Thanjavur.


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