Medieval Chola Empire and it's relations with Andhra Pradesh

Thread started by virarajendra on 25th June 2016 09:39 AM



Author - Virarajendra

Medieval Chola Empire and it's relations with Andhra Pradesh

UNDER CONSTRUCTION

Prelude


"The Cholas" were the foremost among the three "principal" Tamil dynasties the Cherar, Cholar & Paandiyar, and the "subsidery" Tamil dynasties the Thondaimaans, Kongu kings and Aye kings - who ruled from the regions of Chera Nadu, Chola Nadu, Paandiya Nadu, Thondainadu, Kongu Nadu and Venadu (Aye kings) of "earlier" Tamil Nadu - all regions of which are currently encompassed within the present day Tamil Nadu and Kerala States of India.

Chola Nadu (country) of medieval period India

The Chola kingdom during most part of the historical period approximately covered the central regions of present Tamil Nadu encompassing the Thanjavur district, Thiruvarur district, Nagapattinam district, Ariyalur district and Karur district. However it was during the period of Rajaraja Chola - 1 (A.D.985-1014) the foundation was laid for the subsequent great "Indian mainland and overseas Chola Empire".

Composition of Andhra Pradesh (country) of medieval period

During this period the kingdoms that existed in the present Andhra Pradesh state were the Vengi Nadu (also known as Andhra mandalam during the medieval period) situated in between Godavari river and Krishna river ruled by Eastern Chalukiyas. There also existed the Sitpuli Nadu (present Anantpur region), Paaki Nadu [Pakala] - (present Chittoor region), Vela (Velanati) Nadu (present Guntur region), Renadu (present Cudappah region), Nellore Nadu (present Nellore region), the Kurnool Nadu (present Kurnool region), situated in between Krishna and Pennaar river ruled by different Telugu Choda (Chola) kings.

The origin of Telugu Choda (Chola) kingdoms of South Andhra Pradesh

During the first century B.C. the Chola country of Tamil Nadu was ruled by the great Chola emporer of "that period" namely the "Karikaat Cholan", who went on a war expedition as far as Himalayas where he engraved the Tiger emblem of the Cholas on a mountain in this range. In his expedition he defeated kings of Maghada, Avanti, Vachchira countries etc etc. However he held a firm hold over whole of Tamil Nadu, and the region covering the part of present Andhra Pradesh between the Krishna and Pennar rivers. He divided this region in to mandalams and appointed Princes from his royal family - as his viceroys and made them rule the regions under his authority. After Karikaat Cholan they continued to rule these regions 'independently' and was subsequently known as the Telugu Chodas (Cholas in Tamil = Chodas in Telugu). This is further confirmed by the very fact that the generations of Telugu Choda kings who ruled these regions proudly claimed that they decended from the great "Karikat Cholan" of the 'then' Chola Nadu in Tamil Nadu.

Political situation in Vengi country prior to the accession of Rajaraja Chola - 1 on Chola throne

During this period king Danarnava (Rajaraja) of Eastern Chalukyan dynasty ruled Vengi Nadu for three years from A.D.972. However in the year A.D.975 the Telugu-Choda king Jata Choda Bhima of Pedakallu in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh invaded Vengi Nadu, defeated and killed king Danarnava and ruled the whole country for twenty seven years. With this defeat the young princes - Sakthivarman and Vimaladitya (his younger brother) both sons of Danarnava initially took refuge in Kalingadesa, and with the subsequent fall of Kalinga too to Jata Choda Bhima, they reached Chola kingdom and took refuge in Chola country during the rule of king Uththama Chola in Chola country.

Evidences for the above References

".......AmmaRaja -1 (ruled) for twelve years, his son AmmaRaja - 2 for twentyfive (years), Dananripa (Danarnava) his brother from a different mother for three years, Then the country of Vengi was through ill-luck without a ruler for twenty-seven years (period of Chola Bhima in Vengi country)......"

Nandampundi Grant of Chalukya Rajaraja - 1
Epigraphis Indica - Vol IV, no 43 page 300-309


Period of Rajaraja Chola - 1

In the year A.D. 985 Rajaraja Chola - 1 ascended the Chola throne with the death of Uththama Chola. In the early years he concentrated more on the expeditions in the south and west of Chola Nadu.

Subsequently in the year A.D.988 Rajaraja Chola - 1 sent an expedition against Sitpuli Nadu of Anantpur district and Paaki Nadu (Pakala) of the present Chittoor District in South Andhra Pradesh, under the Chola Commander Paraman Malapaadiyaar alias Mummudi Cholan the Chieftain of Karukudi in Thanjavur Kutram. After successful expedition to these two kingdoms this Chieftain gifted a large herd of goats brought in from these regions to the Durga temple at Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu.

However it was only after seventeen years period Rajaraja Chola - 1 gave serious consideration in providing assistance to Chalukya Princes in regaining south Vengi Nadu. He also sent a war expedition to Vengi Nadu in the year A.D.1002 defeated Jata Choda Bhima and captured whole of Vengi Nadu and reinstated prince Sakthivarman as it's king on an understanding that after him it was his younger brother prince Vimaladitya who should rule the entire Vengi country and was made the heir apparent simultaneously.

Evidences for the above References

"......"Since Rajaraja (Eastern Chalukya king) Dhanarnava) an expert in war of the (same) as myself has been killed by a powerful club, I shall therefore kill Andhra (king) called Bhima though (he may be) faultless (as he was killed by a warrior of the Choda Bhima)". So saying he (Rajaraja Chola - 1) killed him (Choda Bhima) with a mace......"

The Thiruvalangadu Plates Rajendra Chola - 1 - Verse 82.
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 3, Part 3&4, page 421


To make his political advantage and to further strengthen the Chola-Chalukya relations gave his daughter the Chola Princess - "Kundavi" in marriage to Vimaladitya the youngest among the Chalukya Princes in refuge.

Website URL of the Video on Rajaraja Chola's "sending off" of his daughter Kundavi with Vimaladityan to Vengi Naadu - as portrayed in the Tamil Film Rajaraja Chola

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AxVPo...eature=related

King Sakthivarman (A.D.1002-1014) ruled entire Vengi Nadu for twelve years from A.D.1002, and was succeeded by King Vimaladitya (A.D.1014-21) in the year A.D.1014 and ruled Vengi for seven years. The Eastern Chalukya kings Sakthivarman and Vimaladitya ruled over Vengi Nadu as independent Rulers but under Chola suzerainty and being the trusted allies of Cholas in North India

Evidences for the above References

"......Then king Saktivarmam the son of Danarnava ruled over the earth for twelve years. Then his younger brother king Vimaladitya who was kind to (all) beings ruled over for seven years....."

Nandampundi Grant of Chalukya Rajaraja - 1
Epigraphis Indica - Vol IV, no 43 page 300-309


"......At that (time) the ornament of the Chalukya race was Vimaladityadeva who conferred prosperity on the whole earth (as the sun causes to unfold the blossoms of) a fine lotus pond.......His son Rajaraja (Narendra) could boast of the sovereignty (over the whole world and) was the refuge of the chief among kings.....Then this glorious Rajaraja the best of princes married the beloved daughter of Rajendra (Chola Rajendra - 1) the virtuous Ammangayamba who was born from the race of Sun (and) who was the chief means of (his) obtaining the power over the various parts of the whole world.....to this couple was born the glorious Kulotunga Chola who was able to bear the whole earth that had been conquered by the power emanating from his own arm (and) to whom the fortune of kings forcibly seized by the hand became attached......"

Pillar Inscription of Prithvisvara at Pithapuram, Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh
Epigraphia Indica Vol IV, No 4, Page 32-54


Period of Rajendra Chola - 1

In the year A.D.1014 Emperor Rajaraja Chola demised and was succeeded by Emperor Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1012-1044) on the Chola throne. At Vengi Nadu too with the death of King Sakthivarman in the same year, King Vimaladitya acended the Vengi throne in the year A.D.1014. However after some years of peaceful rule in the year A.D.1021 he declared himself free from Chola suzerainty. This made Rajendra Chola - 1 furious and to invade Vengi Nadu in the year A.D.1022 in which Chalukya king Vimaladitya (his brother-in-law) subdued and accepted the Chola suzerainty. The Chief Commander Rajendrachola Pallavaraiyan who led this expedition on behalf of Emperor Rajendra Chola - 1, with the Chola victory over Vengi planted a 'pillar of victory' (Jayasthamba) on Mahendragiri Hill in the south-west of present Ichchapuram in Ganjam district of Andhra Pradesh.

Evidences for the above References

"......Rajendra Chola after defeating his brother-in-law Vimaladitya set up a pillar of victory on the Mahendra mountain...." (An Emblem of the Cholas of the period of Rajendra Chola namely the tiger and two fishes are engraved below this Inscription in Telugu)

Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 at Yudhishthira temple on Mahendragiri in Ganjam District, Andhra Pradesh.
Annual Report of South Indian Epigraphy - 1896, No.396


".......naiyum eri....henthira.....ndu Sri Mahenththiraththil jayasthambam naat(i)......" (on stone No 1)

"Sri Mahanayakan Rajendrachola Pallavaraiyan Rajaraja Marayan Mahenthiraththu kondan virangusammum vitti vaaranamalla...." (on stone no 2)

"Vimalathiththanai yung kalangkaruththaa....." (on stone no 3)

Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 on three pieces of stone at Kunti temple on Mahendragiri, in Andhra Pradesh.
Annual Report of South Indian Epigraphy - 1896, No.397


Rajendra Chola - 1 after his victory over Vengi installed King "Rajaraja Narendra" (also known as Vishnuvardana) the 'son of Vimaladitya by his Chola queen "Kundavi" (Rajendra Chola's Sister)' on the Vengi throne on 16th August A.D.1022, and was present personally at this coronation ceremony of his grandson. To further strengthen the Chalukya-Chola relationship Rajendra Chola - 1 gave his own daughter "Ammanga" in marriage to his nephew the Rajaraja Narendra. Henceforth the Vengi country became a protectorate and under the control of the mighty Chola Empire.

Evidences for the above References

"......Vishnuvardhana the son of Vimaladitya by the Chola Pricess Kundavi (daughter of Rajaraja Chola the Great) on the day of coronation on Saka 944, Simha, Krishna 2 Uttarabadrapada donated....." (corresponds to 16th August A.D.1022).

Korumelli Plates of Eastern Chalukya Rajaraja Vishnuvardhana (presently at British Museum)
Indian Antiquary Vol XIV, Page 50


Period of Rajathiraja Chola - 1

The Chalukya-Chola "Rajaraja Narendra" on account of his glorious reign was also called as "Raja-Mahendra". He built a new city on the banks of Godavari river which was named after him as 'Rajamahendravaram' (Rajamahendri the present Rajahmundry of Andhra Pradesh). He ruled the Vengi Nadu from here for 41 years, and to him was born a son by the Chola queen "Ammanga". He was named as (Prince)Rajendra after his grand father the Chola Emperor Rajendra Chola - 1. His birth took place at Gangaikonda Cholapuram in Tamil Nadu in the palace of his grandfather where he spent much of his early childhood.

Evidences for the above References

"........Then king Saktivarmam the son of Danarnava ruled over the earth for twelve years. Then his younger brother king Vimaladitya who was kind to (all) beings ruled over for seven years". His son Rajaraja (Narendra) who possessed political wisdom and who was the abode of the Goddess of victory ruled over the whole earth for forty-one years....."

Nandampundi Grant of Chalukya Rajaraja - 1
Epigraphis Indica - Vol IV, no 43 page 300-309


"......his decendent Vimaladitya whose valour was like that of the enemy of Diti's sons (Visnu), ruled the earth (lying between the Vindhya mountain and the sea and densely filled up by his fame. His son was king Rajarajanarendra (who) on account of his glory was called Raja-mahendra. With his name glitters the lovely town of Rajamahendra on the banks of Gautami (Godavari). His son Kullotunga-Choda (Chola), Kesari (Rajakesarivarman) played by means of his majesty on the summits of Sandle mountain and against the horrible Pandiya......"

The Panchadharala Piller Inscription of the eastern Chalukya king Visvesvara.
Epigraphica Indica Vol XIX, page 164-74


Period of Rajendra Chola - 2

--------------

Period of Virarajendra Chola - 1

During this period the king of Kadarem (Kedah & Perak region) of Malaysia who was ruling under the Chola Empire of Tamil Nadu, was attacked and ousted from the Kedah kingdom by the sucessors to Sri Vijaya king in Sumatra of Indonesia. The disposed king reached Chola country and requested for his assistance to regain the Kadarem kingdom for himself. During this period the prince Rajendra son of Rajaraja Narendra of Vengi and nephhew of the Chola king Virarajendra was sent on a war expedition to Sumatra of Indonesia ruled by the Sri vijaya kings and to Malaysia where it was ruled by the Kadarem king.

His first approach was to clip off the powers of the rising Sri Vijaya kings and then to relive the Kadarem kingdom from his control.

Prince Rajendra (alias Kulothunga) leads the second Chola naval expedition to South-East Asia

Emperor Virarajendra Chola also known as Buwanaasirayan (Buwanawati) after bringing the homefront in the Indian mainland under complete control, with a view of re-stablishing the lost Chola authority over Sri Vijaya empire and also assisting the king of Kadaarem to gain back his throne, sent a naval expedition in the year A.D.1067 to South-East Asia under the command of his nephew prince Rajendra (alias Kulothunga) of the Vengi kingdom (encompassed between the Godavari and Krishna rivers - in the present Andhra State).

Prince Rajendra who also bore the title "Jeyadhara" was the son of Virarajendra Chola's sister Ammangai (married to Rajaraja Narendra the ruling king of the Vengi country alias Manchapattinam the present Masulipattinam of Andhra pradesh in the Indian mainland. He was accompanied by the princes and viceroys ruling Nagapattinam, Thanjavur, Thondaimandalam the present Golkonda, Vangaladesam the present Bengal and Kutcharem the present Gujerat.

Evidences for the above References

".......In Keling (India) dwelt a mighty prince Anyakra Buanawati (Buwanasiraya i.e. Virarajendra) decendent of Pandu (should be Chola)......A great Keling fleet under Jayalengkara (Jeyadhara i.e. Kulotunga Chola - 1) prince of Manchapadnam (Masulipattinam region of Vengi capital), sets out and calls at Paula Percha (another name for Sumatra) where the princes of Acheh (Ilamuridesam), Deli, Batu Bara, Rokan, Siak, Bengkulu, Indragiri, Jambi (Malaiyur) and Palembang (Sri Vijaya) submit and surrender princesses. Pajajaran submits, The rulers of Keling with the rulers of Golkonda, Nagapadanam, Thanjaur, Gujerat and Bengal all came flying through the air, the Tamil ruler and his family in a hill like golden palace (maaligai panchapura). The adipathi of Banyu Mas informs Kuripan that the Tamil king has reached. Pajajaran (in Java) and his golden palace has become a town Martapura complete with moats and castles. After an exchange of envoys and letters the war starts. Inu sends Prabu Mataram and Adipathi Kumaittir to Jagaraga......."

Hikayat Chekel-Waneng-Pati - Raffles MS 23, Library of the Royal Asiatic Library, London. (A Malay Historical Chronicle of the (Hindu) period of 12th century A.D)
A History of Classical Malay Literature - Sir Richard Winstedt (see Appendix).


Note:

This reference was first mentioned by Sir Richard Winstedt in his book titled "A History of Classical Malay Literature". I co-related this information with Kulotunga Chola - 1's war expedition to Kadarem and Sri Vijaya on behalf of Emperor Virarajendra, and was '[u]highlighted for the "first time by me" to all History Scholars' present at a Session presided by Dr Noburu Karashima at the 6th International Tamil Conference/Seminar held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in the year 1987. Similerly all other new informations "given below" too have been "highlighted" "for the first time by me" with the relevent evidences to - many Historians of Tamil Nadu and elsewhere present at this same Conference in the year 1987, where I read my Research Paper in English titled the "The Medieval Chola Empire and it's relations with Malaysia & Indonesia.


There is a further reference in the Tamil Historical chronicle the "Kulothungan Pillaith Thamil" of this period, confirming Prince Rajendra's war expedition to Kadarem as follows.

"......Madimaiyaal varithu iraathu, Angam, vangam, Kalingham, Kuligham Thirikaththam,Maaluvam, Sonakam, Pappalam, Koppalam Magadham, endru evaiyum maravam kadiyum monangalaam arasu ver ara erinthu, Arumanam, Saavakam, Vangaalam, Elam, Kadaarem, Thava Cheenam entru "yaavaiyum kaipaduththi, kudimai aal Arasare aahavittu", avar sikara makudakodikalil vaikkum kodikale vada thisai Gangaiyai then thisai kondu ela pandu kondu angu adimai aalum piran mahan mahan........".

Kulothunga Cholan Pillai Thamil - by Ottakkooththar, verse 77


Discussion

The Tamil poetic work "Kulothunga Cholan Pillai Thamil" of the 12th century by Poet Ottakkooththar is a praise poem on Kulothunga Chola - 2. The above reference in same on the war achievements of "a Chola king" is mentioned in detail, and at the end it specifically states that Kulothunga Chola - 2 was the grandson of 'this great Chola king' on whom they have been attributed. But we are well aware from all epigraphical and historical sources on the chronology of the later Chola kings that this great king was no other than Kulothunga Chola - 1 whose grandson was the Kulothunga Chola - 2.

Hence it is very clear that it was Kulothunga Chola - 1 who captured the South-East Asian countries namely Arumanam (Miyanmar), Saavakam (the island Java), Kadaarem the Kedah of Malaysia), Thavaa Cheenam (Taoist China the present Kouang Chow of southernmost region of mainland China), which according to the same reference "were handed back to the respective rulers', undoubtedly on their acceptance of Chola suzerainty and agreeing to pay tributes.

The above evidence too was for the first time highlighted by me to the Chola Historical community at this same Tamil Conference/Seminar held in the year 1987.


All kingdoms in Sumatra subdue to the Cholas

The Chola forces first landed in the island of Sumatra. The kings and viceroys of Ilamuridesam, Pannai, Sri Vijaya and other small kingdoms centering around the river Siak, Rokan, and Indragiri in central Sumatra and Benkulu in the south submitted themselves preventing war and accepted the Chola suzerainty in preferance to the Javan supremacy.

However the king of Malaiyur in Sumatra refused to accept the Chola supremacy initially and was defeated and his kingdom captured, but was handed back to him on his recognition of the Chola overlordship over Malaiyur.

Evidences for the above References

"......Arukkan uthayaththu thaasaiyil irrukkum kamalam anaiya nilamakal thanai munneer kuliththa annaal, Thirumaal aathik kelal aaki eduththanna yaathum saliyaa vakai inithu eduththa than kudai nilat keel inpura iruththi thikiriyum puliyum thisai thorum nadaaththi(ya) Ko Rajakesari vanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Cholathevarkku aandu 2 aavathu......"

Inscription of Rajendra Chola (Kulothunga Chola - 1)
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol


Chola forces captures West Java

The Chola forces now crossed seas and proceeded to the island Java for the first time. An initial attempt for peaceful negotiations by the prince Rajendra with Airlanga's son to regain Kadarem failed. This caused the forces to move towards Pajajaran the capital of the Hindu - Sunda kingdom in West Java having the Pamali river (present Brebas river) as it's eastern border and now under the suzerainty of Javan empire. This kingdom submitted to the Chola forces. The (Sena-)athipathi named Banyu Mas informed the king at Kuripan

Chola forces under prince Rajendra brought this kingdom under Chola rule. However subsequently these territories were handed back to him on his acceptance of the Chola authority over West Java.

Chola forces re-captures Kadarem

Prince Rajendra now proceeded with his forces to Kadaarem in the peninsular Malaysia defeated the ruling viceroy of Airlanga's son and took control of the kingdom of Kadaarem, and assumed the title "Kulothunga Chola Kidaaratharaiyan (Kadaaratharaiyan). He subsequently gave the reign of Kadarem to king Suran the earlier ruler of Kadarem who seeked the assistance of the Chola king Virarajendra.

Evidences for the above References

"......(Kulothunga Cholan) parakkum oathak Kadaaram aliththa naal paayintha sempunal aadiyum neenthiyum......"

Kalingaththupparani - by Jeyamkondaar, chapter six titled 'Peikalai paadiyathu'


Prince Rajendra Chola visits the Cambodia king Harshavarman - 3 (A.D.1066-1080)

The good relations the Cholas had with kings of Cambodia from the time of Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1012-1044) continued, and with the presence of Prince Rajendra Chola - 1 in South-East Asia on his second Chola war expedition in A.D.1067 and after his re-capture of Kadarem, possibly induced him to visit the court of the Khamer Empire of Cambodia (present Kampuchea) just across the seas from Kadarem around to further strengthen the Chola-Khamer relationship under the Khamer Emperor Harshavarman - 3 (A.D.1066-1080).

It was during this visit as a mark in memory of the meeting of the Cambodian king Harshavarman - 3 with Prince Rajendra Chola in person, the former gifted a stone (possibly carved and ornamented) to Prince Rajendra Chola to be taken to Chola country. On his return this stone was placed as exhibition monument on the front Mandapam wall in front of the Sanctum Sanctorium of the Chithamparam Nadarajar Temple in the Chola country in Tamil Nadu on the instructions of Prince Rajendra Chola - 1 (later Kulothunga Chola - 1).

Evidences for the above References

"......Sri Rajendra Chola thevarkku Kamboja Rajan kaatchiyaaka kaatina kallu. Ithu Udaiyar Rajendra Chola thevar thiruvaai molintharula Udaiyar Thiruchittrambala Udayar Koyilil mun vaiththathu. Intha kallu Thiruethirambalaththu Thirukkalcharaththil thirumun paththikku melai paththiyile vaiththathu....."

Epigraphia Indica - Vol 5, inscription No 13 C


Prince Rajendra (alias Kulothunga) rules from Sri Vijaya

After the South-East Asian expedition prince Rajendra (alias Kulothunga) returned to Sri Vijaya and procliamed himself as the Ruler of Sri Vijaya with his new royal title Kulothunga Chola Thevar falling in line with the royal titles of the previous Emperors of Sri Vijaya namely Mara Vijayothunga, Sangirama Vijayothunga etc and became the emperor of Sri Vijaya from A.D.1068. This made the Chinese of this period refer to Kulothunga as one ruling both the Chola empire and Sri Vijaya empire. During this period he established more control over territories of Chola interest and regulated their trade in this region.

Kulothunga Chola Thevar after his proclamation as the Ruler of Sri Vijaya, with his victory over Kadaarem (the Kedah region) of present Malaysia and it's re-annexation to the great Chola empire assumed himself also as "Kulothunga Chola Kidaaratharaiyan" meaning the 'Kulothunga Chola the king of Kidaarem' (Kadaarem).

Evidences for the above References


The fifth Chola trade delegation to China from Sri Vijaya

He remained at Sri Vijaya for some time until condiions at Sri Vijaya settled. It was during this period Kulothunga Deva (Ti Hua Ka Lo) in the year A.D.1067 paid a visit to the Chinese court with tributes and he was given the title by the Chinese Emperor Ying Sung as "Great General who supports Obedience and cherishes Renovation".

The Emperor provided with an imperal edict which read as follows: "Our reputation and Our teachings overshadow all countries whether far or near and if their people are only loyal and dutiful, we always give them Chinese titles favouring them with fine names in order to distinguish their countries. You have gladly obeyed our high influence and come across the sea to bring valuable articles as tribute. We praise you for this and have raised your rank in order to give an encouragement to loyalty and dutifulness"

Kulothunga Chola Deva reconstructs Tao temple in China

On his return through the Kwang Chou port (Canton) he heard of a great Tao temple which was destroyed and burnt in A.D.1052 by a Chinese Bandit chief named Lang of Kwang Yuen and it remained in ruins with no one to reinstate. The Sri Vijaya king Kulothunga Deva on his return from the Chinese court to Sri Vijaya sent his envoy named Chih Lo Lo to escort his ships to the seaport city Kwang Chou to investigate in to the position of this temple. He saw this Tao temple ruins and returned back and reported to king Kulothunga Deva.

In the same year A.D.1067 (in the fourth reign year 'chih ping' o Emperor Ying Sung) prince Rajendra Chola sent Chola Sha-Wen to Kwang Chou port to meet the Prefectural Authority of Kwang Chou seaport city and begin the construction of the main Gate of the temple. In the year A.D.1068 (first reign year 'nsi ning' of Emperor Shen Sung)

He probably with a view of further strengthening the already existing good trade and diplomatic relations ordered the reconstruction of the main gate, hall, and an auditorium to house the imperial edicts made to this temple.

Kulothunga Chola Deva after a brief period of rule at Sri Vijaya as its overlord returned to the Chola country, after appointing a viceroy to rule this kingdom namely Debar Lemang Duan having the Chola royal blood, great-grand son of Rajendra Chola - 2's son.

Evidences for the above References

"........In the 4th year of Hung Yiu (A.D.1052) the bandit Lang of Kwang Yuen sailed down the river unexpectedly and came stealthily to the border of the central wall of Fan Yu city. Calamity befell the temple and it was reduced to ashes. Who could be the one to reinstate the ruins that lay before one's eyes. Had one not been a man of wealth, a devotee of Tao and a sincere seeker of happiness would one ever be willing to pay attention to this ? The city of Five Goats (Canton) is situated near the great sea. It connects with various foreign lands. It is a rendezvous ehere the flying merchantmen meet.

During the reign of Chih Ping (A.D.1064-1067), the lord of the land San-fo-Tsi the paramount chief Ti-Hua-Ka-Lo (Deva-Kulo = Kulothunga [Chola] Deva) ordered one of his clansmen Chih Lo Lo to escort his ships to this city. Chih lo Lo saw the temple in ruins its foundation being buried in wilderness. He then returned home and reported the matter to the Lord. Since then Ti-Hua-Ka-Lo (Deva-Kulo = Kulothunga [Chola] Deva) began to have an inclination for Tac. In the 4th year (of Chih Ping 1067) he despatched Si Li Sha Wen to Canton to call at the prefectural authority, and began to undertake the construction of the Main Gate (of the temple).

in the 1st year of Nsi Ning (A.D.1068) Sha Wen went home before the construction of the Hall was completed. He came back in the 2nd year to complete his work. He also built the Auditorium of the Imperial Edict to the west of the Prefecture (Canton).

Sha Wen again left for his home land, and in the 3rd year (A.D.1070) the Lord of the Land (of San-fo-tsi = Sri Vijaya)) again sent his clansman, who brought various articles with him to solicit Lo Yin Chih a priest from Lu San to be the Residential Administrator of the temple and Ho Teck Sun the Supervisor. In the same year he asked for permission to purchase a rice-field at 100,000 gold cash, the proceeds of which were to cover the expenses of the temple

.......Splendid honours showered upon those concerned. The title of Great General Who Supports Obedience and Cherishes Renovation was given to the Lord of the Land (of San Fo Tsi = Sri Vijaya)......

The ships of the Lord of the Land (of San-fo-Tsi = Sri Vijaya) ever since the constrction of the temple sailed to their destination witout the fear of danger which they suffered in previous days. This was enough to prove the blessings of the Real Supernatural Powers a reward from the Supreme Purity.

Being an eye-witness of this miracle I bowed to the request of the Great Master Tsong Tao to record this in the 2nd year of Yuan Fong (A.D.1079) on the day of double-nine

The Meritorious Donor : Ti-Hua-Ka-Lo (Deva-Kulo = Kulothunga [Chola] Deva) the Great General Who Supports Obedience and Cherishes Renovation. This stone was erected by the Chief Priest Ho Tek Sun the Great Master......."

Sri Vijaya Inscription in a ruined Taoist Monastery (at Kuang Cho North Road) in Canton - by Tan Yeok Seong,
Journal of the South-East Asian History (Singapore) September - 1964


"In the reign of Chih Ping, Ti-Hua-Ka-Lo (Deva-Kulo = Kulothunga [Chola] Deva) sent an envoy Chih Lo Lo by name to pay tribute to the Court. The ship was caught in a storm and almost capsized. Chih Lo lo prayed to Heaven (for mercy). Thereupon an old man appeared in the cloud and the storm was subdued. At that time the city of Canton was destroyed by lang the bandit. The portrait of Lao Chun was laid in the dust. Chih Lo Lo came across it and found that it was the picture of the old man whom he saw previously.

When he returned home he reported the matter to Ti-Hua-Ka-Lo (Deva-Kulo = Kulothunga [Chola] Deva) who at once sent Si li Sha Wen to go to Canton to buy building materials and to recruit workers to reconstruct (the temple). When it was completed Lo Yin Chih a Taoist priest was asked to be the Resident Administrator and Ho Tek Sun the Supervisor. An endowment fund fund of 100,000 cash was donated to purchase a piece of farmland located at Min Tang in the district of Fan Yu. The next year Ti-Hua-Ka-Lo (Deva-Kulo = Kulothunga [Chola] Deva) died. His nail and hair were scissored and sent to the priest who buried them at Min Tang. Sacrifice is offered even even today"

Found in the Chinese Chronicle titled "Older History of Kuang Chou"
Re-quoted in :Tien Hsia Chun Kuo Li Pin Shu - by Ku Yen Wu
Sri Vijaya Inscription in a ruined Taoist Monastery (at Kuang Cho North Road) in Canton - by Tan Yeok Seong,
Journal of the South-East Asian History (Singapore) September - 1964


(7) The Prince Rajendra ascends on the Vengi throne

With the death of Rajaraja Narendra A.D.1057 his son Prince Rajendra became the king of Vengi Nadu. The daughter of the Chola king Rajendra - 2 named Mathuranthahi was given in marriage to prince Rajendra of Vengi Nadu. He built his new capital city at Cholavarem (the present Chodavarem in Vizagapattinam district) and a seaport city the Kulothunga Cholapattinam Pattinam (the present Vizakapattinam port city).

In the year A.D.1070 with the death of Virarajendra a rebellion sparked off in the Chola country in which his son Athirajendra Chola the next legitimate successor to the Chola throne was assasinated and a state of anarchy prevailed in the kingdom.

His untimely death with no heir apparent to succeed paved way for Kulothunga as the next successor to the throne in A.D.1070 with the royal title 'Kulothunga Chola - 1' (A.D.1070-1120).

Kulothunga Chola - 1 receives tributes from Malaysia and Indonesia

During the early part of his rule West Java, Sumatra and Malaysian territories including Kadarem which subdued and accepted the Chola sovereignty during the period of Virarajendra continued to send tributes to Chola country.

Evidences for the above References

".......vaar kadat thivaanthara poopaalar thirai vidu kalam sori kaliru murai nitpa ......ko vi Rajakesarivanmaraana Thiripuvana chakravarthikal Sri Kulothunga Cholathevarkku aandu naatpaththainthaavathu......."

Inscription of Kulothunga Chola - 1
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 3, Page 133, No.64


Kulothunga Chola -1 confirms grants to Buddhist Temples in Tamil Nadu

The good relations between the Chola country and Kadarem were again normalised during the rule of Kulothunga Chola - 1. The king of Kadarem through his envoys Rajavidyadara Sri Samandan and Abimanetunga Sri Samandan requested him to reconfirm on copper plates the earlier grants made to the Buddhists temples Rajendra Chola perumpalli and Rajaraja perumpalli (alias Sailendra Chulamanipanma vihare), built by his predecessors at Nagapattinam in Shythiriya Sihamani valanaadu in the Chola country.

This request was granted by Kulothunga Chola - 1 in the year A.D.1090 and the officers Rajavallaba Santhuvikrikan Pallavaraiyar and Rajendrasingha Muventhavelaan arranged confirmation of same on copper plates.

Chola King Kulothunga’s inscription dated A.D 1098 A.D.confirms he having given donations to Varaha Narasimha Swamy Temple at Simhachalam in the Visagapattinam district.

Towards this period the seaport city of Nagapattinam was renamed as Cholakulavalli pattinam after one of Kulothunga's consorts and Shythiriya Sihamani valanadu as Keyamaanikka valanadu.

Evidences for the above References


Kulothunga Chola - 1 declares Nagapattinam a Duty Free Port

The trading activities of the Chola country with South-East Asia and China increased immensely, which made the emperor Kulothunga Chola - 1 to remove 'custom duties' imposed on goods of trade and make Nagapattinam a free port. This gave rise to his new title as "Sungam Thavirththa Cholan" meaning the 'Chola who waived the custom duties'.

Evidences for the above References

"......Sri Kulothunga Chola Thevar who abolished the custom duties and removed the darkness and ruled the world....'

Inscription No 408, Annual Report on Epigraphy - year 1912


Meanwhile in the Chola country king Virarajendra succeeded on the Chola throne in A.D.1063 he ruled Tamil Nadu for seven years and appointed his son Athirajendra Chola as heir apparent in the year A.D.1067. Virarajendra Chola demised in the year A.D.1070 and towards the same time Athirajendra became very sickly and met his death.

With much confusion prevailing king Rajendra of Vengi Nadu rushed to Chola country and proclamed himself as the legitimate successor to the Chola empire as his grandmother Kundavi, mother Ammanga and his queen Mathuranthahi were all Chola Princesses from the same Chola royal family of Tamil Nadu and was accepted by the people. He ascended the Chola throne with the regnal name Kulothunga Chola - 1 in A.D.1070. In the mean time he gave his kingship of Vengi Nadu to his son Vikkrama Chola by his Chola Princess Mathuranthahi to rule under his authority.

From henceforth Vengi kingdom was under the direct control of the Chola Emperor Kulothunga Chola with Vikkrama Chola being his viceroy in Vengi country.





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