Brief historical study of Mathurai (Madurai) Meenaakshi Amman Temple

Thread started by virarajendra on 25th May 2014 09:47 AM



Author - Virarajendra

A brief historical study of Mathurai (Madurai) Meenaakshi Amman Temple

Under Construction

Prologue

The Tamil Paandiyar (Paandiya) kings built their new capital city at 'Mathurai' (present Madurai) in Tamil Nadu, after their earlier capital city at 'Kapadapuram' on the coastel region east of present Ramanathapuram district of Tamil Nadu, was destroyed in a great Tsunami and Landslide around B.C.325.

During this period the Paandiyar kings built a great temple to God Siva and his consort Goddess Sakthi who remained the 'kulatheivam' of the this dynasty for many years. The region of this temple shrine in the city of Mathurai was called "Thiruaalavaai" (மதுரை திருஆலவாய்). The God Siva was known as "Thiruaalavaayer" and as "Peraalavaayer". The central shrine (Karuvarai) of this temple was known as 'Velliambalam' where God Siva has been represented in his dancing form as "Aadavallaan" (Nadarajah), similer to how God Siva in his dancing form was represented in the central shrine of Aadavallaan Thirukkoyil (Chithambaram temple) and known as 'Ponnambalam'.

Here they establised their (Third Thamil Sangam B.C.325 - A.D.350) - the acadamy doing research studies and developing the Tamil - Language, Literature, Music and Dance with a team of great Tamil Poets headed by Paandiyan kings.

One of the Tamil Poet of the third Thamil Sangam "Kaviripoompattinaththu Kaari Kannanaar" has composed a praise poem on the king of his period the"Paandiyan Velliambalaththu thunjiya Peruvaluthi" of B.C.39-17 which has been included in the Tamil Literary work "Puranaanooru". From same we note the Paandiyan king Peruvaluthi demised while he was praying in the 'Velliambalam' the Karuvarai of then Thiruaalavai Siva temple at Mathurai.

Another Tamil Poet of the third Thamil Sangam had been known as "Mathurai Peraalavaayer" after the name of the God represented in the Siva temple built at Mathurai. He has composed two praise poems and included in the Tamil Literary Work known as "Akanaanooru" of this period. One of the poems was in praise of then ruling Paandiyan king "Thalaiaalanganaththu Cheru vendra Neduncheliyan" of A.D.112-134.

The third Thamil Sangam period of rule by Paandiyas of Tamil Nadu from Madurai

The Tamil Sangam Poets namely Kapilar, Paranar, Nakkirar and Kallader have also composed 'seperate poetic pathikams' on God Siva, in addition to their individual poems composed by them in the audience of Paandiyan king and poets in the third Thamil Sangam in the capital city of Mathurai, and included in the collective work of poems known as Ahanaanooru, Puranaanooru and Nattrinai. These Pathikams on God Siva have been included in the eleventh Saiva Thirumurai.

The Saiva Thirumuraikal were complied into seven volumes by Saint 'Nambiaandaar Nambi' on the instructions of the Chola emperor Rajaraja Chola - 1 (A.D..985-1014) during the period of his rule. Nambiaandaar Nambi himself in addition composed some Pathikams of his own in Tamil in praise of few Tamil Saiva Saints, and a Pathikam titled 'Thiruththondar Thiruvanthathi' in praise of the 63 - Tamil Saiva Saints of Tamil Nadu. In a verse in same he refers to the Pathikams composed by the prominent Poets Kapilar, Paranar and Nakkirar of the third Thamil Sangam on God Siva at Thiruaalavaai at Mathurai. Hence it is confirmed that the poetic compositions of these Poets included in the eleventh Thirumurai are in fact the compositions on God Siva by these Poets of the period of Thamil Sangam. Further it is confirmed in same that Thiruaalavaai Siva temple did exist in the Pandiyan capital city - the Mathurai during the period of third Thamil Sangam.

".......பொய்யடிமை இல்லாத புலவர்
தரணியிற் பொய்ம்மை இலாத் தமிழ்ச் சங்கம் அதிற் கபிலர்
பரணர், நக்கீரர்
முதல் நாற்பத் தொன்பது பல்புலவோர்
அருள் நமக் கீயும் "திருவாலவாய் அரன்" சேவடிக்கே
பொருளமைத் தின்பக் கவி பல பாடும் புலவர்களே
......."

Eleventh Thirumurai - 'Thiruththondar Thiruvanthai' by Nambiaandar Nambi, verse 49.


The first known reference to the Siva Temple at Mathurai is seen from the poetic work "Mathurai Kaanchi" sung on "Thalaiyaalanganaththu cheru vendra Neduncheliyan" (A.D.112-134) of Mathurai, Tamil Nadu which is as follows:

"நீரு நிலனுந் தீயும் வளியும்
மாக விசும்போ டைந்துட னியற்றிய
"மழுவா ணெடியோன் றலைவ னாக" (God Siva)......
.......னுயர் பலி (offerings) கொடுமார்
அந்தி விழவிற் றூரியங் கறங்கத் ......

......பேரிளம் பெண்டிர்
பூவினர் புகையினர் தொழுவனர் பழிச்சிச்
சிறந்து புறங்காக்குங் "கடவுட் பள்ளி" (God's Temple) யுஞ்
சிறந்த வேதம் விளங்கப் பாடி
......"

Madurai Kaanchi of Paththuppaattu- by Maangudi Maruthanaar


This Siva Temple at Mathurai has also been referred in the great Tamil Epic Silappathikaaram of (A.D.175) of Chera Nadu (the present Kerala) as follows:

".....ஒங்குயர் கூடல் (Mathurai) ஊர்துயி லெடுப்ப
நுதல்விழி நாட்டத் திறையோன் (God Siva's) கோயிலும் (temple) {at Mathurai}....."

Silappathikaaram - By Ilango Adihal, Mathurai Kaandam


Thiruaalavai Siva Temple is also referred to in the Tamil Saiva Maanikkavaasagar (A.D.285-317) of Tamil Nadu in his Thiruammaanai of Thiruvaasakam as follows:

கண்சுமந்த நெற்றிக் கடவுள் கலிமதுர
மண்சுமந்து கூலிகொண்டு அக்கோவால் மொத்துண்டு
புண்சுமந்த பொன்மேனி பாடுதுங்காண் அம்மானாய்.

Thiruvasakam - By Tamil Saiva Saint Maanikkavaasakar, chapter on Thiruvammanai


It was during the period A.D.317-467 prior to the invasion of Mathurai by the Kalabhra king Acchutha Vickranthahan in A.D.467, the Paandiyars gave more prominance to the worship of Goddesss Sakthi in the Siva Temple Aalavaai at Mathurai.

The Kalabhra invasion of Tamil Nadu and their rule from Mathurai

During the period of mid fifth century in A.D.467 the king Achchutha Vickranthahan of the Kalabhra dynasty from the region of present South Karnaataka invaded Tamil Nadu and defeated and captured the three Tamil kings and their Chola, Chera and Paandiyan kingdoms and ruled as the "Perarasar" over the Tamil Kingdoms at Mathurai from A.D.467 to A.D.506. He appointed as his Kalabhra viceroys from his own dynasty to rule the Chola Nadu and Chera Nadu under him. This period of Acchutha Vickranthahan at Mathurai was referred to as the "Kalabhra period of Paandiya Nadu" of then Tamil Nadu.

The Kalabhras who invaded Paandiya Nadu were Jains by religion and they promoted their religion in a big way in Paandiya Nadu which paved way for the decline of Saivaism in Paandiya Nadu and undoubtedly the worship and the rituals of God Siva a the Aalavaai temple in Mathurai. The Jains choose the Tamil as their media of propergation of the Jain religion and in the year A.D.470 the Jain religious dignitory Vajjira Nanthi institued a Tamil Sangam for this purpose at Mathurai.

"......Padai Naanku udantru Panchavan thuranthu Mathurai vaviya Karunada venthan, Arukar saarnthu nintru (Aran) arutpani addaippa......."
Kallaadam by Kallaadanaar, Vidvan Naarayana Velupillai edition
.

The end of Kalabhra rule at Mathurai in Tamil Nadu

With the death of no legitimate successor after the death of the Kalabhra king Achutha Vikranthahan, his Tamil Ministers decided to appoint a new king on the Paandiyar throne at Mathurai and selected Moorthy Naayanar as the next Ruler of Pandiya Kingdom at Mathurai.

".....சிந்தைச் சிவமே தெளியும் திரு மூர்த்தியார் தாம்
முந்தைச் செயலாம் அமண் போய் முதல் சைவம் ஓங்கில்
இந்தப் புவி தாங்கி ....."

".....கல்வி யோரும்
வன் திண் மதி நூல் வளர் வாய்மை அமைச்சர் தாமும்
நன்றிங்கு அருள் தான் என நற்தவ வேந்தர் சிந்தை
ஒன்றும் அரசாள் உரிமைச் செயலான உய்த்தார்......"

"......முதன் மும்மையினால் உலகு ஆண்டனர் மூர்த்தியார்"

"......ஞாலந் தனி நேமி நடாத்தி
நலம் கொள் ஊழிக் காலம் உயிர்கட்கு இடர் ஆன கடிந்து காத்து
பாதம் பர மன்னவர் சூழ்ந்து பணிந்து போற்ற
ஏதம் பிணியா வகை இவ் உலகு ஆண்டு
நாதன் கழல் சேவடி நண்ணினர் அண்ணலாரே......"

Periyapuraanam - by Seikeelaar, Moorthy Naayanaar kaandam


Period of Paandiyar (A.D.575-966) pre-medieval period Mathurai

It was during this period the two foremost Tamil Saiva Saints namely the Thirunaavukkarasar (A.D.568-649) and Thirugnana Sambanthar (A.D.641 - 657) lived in Tamil Nadu. The eldest among them being the Saint Thirunaavukkarasar refers to Thiruaalavaai in his Thevarems as follows:

"......நண்ண லார்புரம் மூன்றெரி ஆலவாய்
அண்ணலே யஞ்சலென்றருள் செய்யெனை
......"

".....தஞ்ச மென்றுன் சரண் புகுந்தேனையும்
அஞ்ச லென்றருள் ஆலவா யண்ணலே

Fifth Thirumurai - by Tamil Saiva Saint Thirunaavukkarasar, Pathikam, Verse .


பெருக்காறு சடைக்கணிந்த பெருமான் சேரும்
பெருங் கோயில் எழுபதினோ(டு) எட்டும் மற்றும்
கரக்கோயில் கடிபொழில்சூழ் ஞாழற் கோயில்
கருப்பறியற் பொருப்பனைய கொகுடிக் கோயில்

இருக்கோதி மறையவர்கள் வழிபட்(டு) ஏத்தும்
இளங்கோயில்
மணிக்கோயில் ஆலக் கோயில்
திருக்கோயில் சிவனுறையுங் கோயில் சூழ்ந்து
தாழ்ந்திறைஞ்சத் தீவினைகள் தீரும் அன்றே.

Sixth Thirumurai - Tamil Saiva Saint Thirunaavukkarasar

".....பொங்கழ லுருவன்......அங்கயற் கண்ணி தன்னொடும் அமர்ந்த ஆலவா யாவதும் இதுவே"


The God Siva in this temple was named as "Chokkanaather" and the Goddess as "Angkayatkanni".

During the period of the Paandiya king Maravarman Arikesari Seer Nedumaran (A.D.640-670) after the Paandiya Nadu came under the sway from the grip of Kalabhras the Paandiyan king had more leanings toward the Jain religion. His Queen Mangaiyarkkarasi the daughter of the Chola king Manimudi Cholan and the chief minister of Paandiya kingdom the Kulachiraiyaar desperately tried to bring him back to the Saiva faith.

"......மங்கையர்க் கரசி வளவர்கோன் பாவை வரிவளைக் கைம்மட மானி
பங்கயச் செல்வி பாண்டிமா தேவி பணிசெய்து நாடொறும் பரவப்
பொங்கழ லுருவன் பூதநா யகனால் வேதமும் பொருள்களும் அருளி
"அங்கயற் கண்ணி தன்னொடும் அமர்ந்த ஆலவா யாவதும் இதுவே".......
.

"......ஒற்றைவெள் விடையன் உம்பரார் தலைவன் உலகினில் இயற்கையை யொழிந்திட்
டற்றவர்க் கற்ற சிவனுறை கின்ற ஆலவா யாவதும் இதுவே......".

"......சந்தமார் தரளம் பாம்புநீர் மத்தந் தண்ணெருக் கம்மலர் வன்னி
அந்திவான் மதிசேர் சடைமுடி யண்ணல் ஆலவா யாவதும் இதுவே......

".....கோபுரஞ் சூழ்மணிக் கோயில்
மணங்கமழ் கொன்றை வாளரா மதியம் வன்னி வண் கூவிள மாலை
அணங்கு வீற் றிருந்த [b]சடைமுடி யண்ணல் ஆலவா யாவதும் இதுவே......[b]
".

".......வெய்யவேற் சூலம் பாசம் அங்குச மான் விரிகதிர் மழுவுடன் தரித்த
ஐயனார் உமையோ டின்புறு கின்ற ஆலவா யாவதும் இதுவே
....."

"......கலைமலி கரத்தன் மூவிலை வேலன் கரியுரி மூடிய கண்டன்
அலைமலி புனல்சேர் சடைமுடி யண்ணல் ஆலவா யாவதும் இதுவே....."

"......சுத்தமார் பளிங்கின் பெருமலை யுடனே சுடர்மர கதமடுத் தாற்போல்
அத்தனார் உமையோ டின்புறு கின்ற ஆலவா யாவதும் இதுவே....."

Third Thirumurai - by Tamil Saiva Saint Thirugnasampanthar, Pathikam 120, Verse 2-8


முத்தமிழ் நான்மறை முளைத்தருள் வாக்கால்
வீதி கூறி விதித்தமுன் வரத்தால்......'

".....ஆலவாய் அமர்ந்த நீலம் நிறை கண்டன்...."

".....மதி முடி அந்தணன் (God Siva)
பொன்அணி மாடம் பொலிநகர்க் கூடல்......"


".....வையை மாமாது மணத்துடன் சூழ்ந்த
கூடல் பெருமான் பொன்பிறழ் திருவடி...."

".....பேரருட் கூடல் பெரும்பதி நிறைந்த
முக்கட் கடவுள் முதல்வனை
வணங்கார்
தொக்கதீப் பெருவினை சூழ்ந்தன போலவும்......'

"அறப் பெருங்கூடல் பிறைச்சடைப் பெருமான்
திருவடி
ப் பெருந்தேன் பருகுநர் போல......"

"......கூடல்அம் பதி நிறை
மஞ்சடை குழல்பெறு செஞ்சடைப் பெருமான்"

"......சுருள் விரி சாலியும் குலை அரம்பையுமே
வடதிரு ஆல வாய் திரு நடுவூர்
வெள்ளி யம்பலம்....."

".....இருந்தமிழ்க் கூடல் பெருந்தவர் காண
வெள்ளியம் பலத்துள் துள்ளிய ஞான்று (20)
நெருப்பொடு சுழலவும் விருப்பெடுத் தவ் வழல்
கையினில் கொள்ளவும் கரிவுரி மூடவும்
ஆக்கிய பனிப்பகைக் கூற்றிவை நிற்க......"

".....கல்வியும் திருவும் காலமும் கொடியும்
மாடமும் ஓங்கிய மணிநகர்க் கூடல்
ஆல வாயினில் அருளுடன் நிறைந்த (20)
பவளச் சடையோன்
....."

"....நாடக விதியொடு ஆடிய பெருமான்
மதுரை மாநகர்......"

".....நீங்காப் பழனப் பெருநகர்க் கூடல்
கரம் மான் தரித்த பெருமான் இறைவன்
....."


Subsequently Goddess Sakthi too was given prominance at Mathurai Aalavaai.

".....முன்ஒரு நாளில் முழுக்கதி அடைந்த
அம்மைப் பெயர்பெறும் அருட்பேய் பிடிப்ப
பூதமும் கூளியும் பேயும் குளிப்ப
அமரர்கண் களிப்ப ஆடிய பெருமான்
மதுரையம் பதி எனும் ஒருகொடி மடந்தை
......"

".....வெள்ளி அம்பலத்துள் துள்ளிய பெருமான்
கூடல் மாநகர் அன்ன பொற்கொடி
!......"

".....மத மலை இருநான்கு பிடர் சுமந்து ஓங்கிச்
செம்பொன் மணிகுயிற்றிய சிகரக் கோயிலுள்
(Temple with a Tower having eight levels)
அமையாத் தண்ணளி உமையுடன் நிறைந்த
ஆலவாய் உறைதரும் மூலக் கொழுஞ்சுடர்
....."

"......பனிமலை பயந்த மாதுடன் தீர்த் தருள்
பெம்மான் வாழும் பெருநகர்க் கூடல்
....."

{All the above references are from Kallaadam}
Kallaadam - by Kalladanaar (This Tamil Literary work belongs to the period A.D.850-900)


"......padu kadan mulaiththa paruthi poat Paandiyaathi-rasan velippattu......odunga Mannar oli nagar aliththa Kadungkon ennum kathir vet Thennan....." - Velvikkudi Cheppedukal.

(1) Kadungkon Paandiyan (A.D.575-600)
Capital city - Mathurai
Sea-port City - Kotkai

(2) Maravarman Avani Chulaamani (A.D.600-625) - Son of (1)
Capital city - Mathurai

(3) Cheliyan Senthan (A.D.625-640) - Son of (2)
Capital city - Mathurai

(4) Maravarman Arikesari Seer Nedumaran (A.D.640-670) - Son of (3)

Mainland Political Relations with - Married Chola Princess Mangaiyarkkarasi (Mangaiyarkkarasi Valavankon Paavai - Thirugnanasampanthar Thevarem

Period of Pandiya king Nedumaran – A.D.642 - 692
Other Saints (mentioned above): A.D.608 - 692




முத் தமிழ் மதுரைத்
திருவால வாயர் Maduraikkovai
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நீள் கடிம்மதில்
கூடலால வாயிலாய் குலாயதென்ன கொள்கையே. 01


மறையிலங்கு பாடலாய் மதுரையால வாயிலாய்
நிறையிலங்கு நெஞ்சினால் நினைப்பதே நியமமே. 08

3. 051 திருஆலவாய்
பண் - கௌசிகம்
திருச்சிற்றம்பலம்

திருஆலவாயில்
எம்மைப் பவந் தீர்ப்பவர் சங்கம் இருந்தது
ஆறாம் திருமுறை


The late Medieval Chola period of rule at Mathurai in Tamil Nadu

In the year A.D.1190 the Chola king Kulothunga Chola (A.D.1178-1218) invaded the Paandiya Nadu and defeated the king Kulasekara Paandiyan who escaped from Mathurai with his brother. The Kulothunga Chola - 3 crowned himself at Mathurai and bore the title 'Chola Paandiyan' and a title as 'Thiribhuvana Viradevan' and renamed Thiruaalavaai (Mathurai temple city) as "Mudikonda Cholapuram". During his period at Mathurai he donated many jewellery to God Siva represented as "Aalavaai Peruman Adigal" and adorned the temple vimaanam with gold coverigs, and also built a new roadway surrounding the Aalavaai temple and a festival to the God Siva after his name.

"......Hail Prosperity Thirty first year of Tribhuvanachakravatigal Thirubhuvana Dever also called Ko-Parakesarivarman.....built the Tribhuvanaviraisvaram for the Iraivar......captured the great city of Mathurai prostrated himself before and worshipped the Selunjudar (god Siva) who wore in his matted locks the Ganges and honeyed flowers of the cassia and who abides in Thiruaalavaai, and on that occasion gave him a gift of various kinds of necklaces prostrating himself at the raised foot of the Poruvili was pleased to give to him the golden jewel of Indra and the ornament that was set with well cut stones.......and having had to rename the city of Madurai on the fertile waters of Vaikai after abolishing the old name Madurai, was pleased to give it the new name Mudikondacholapuram inscribed on the Mandapam of the Valuthiyar (Paandiyar) of great army his name as "Chera Paandiyan Thambiran'......(and) who while staying at Thiruaalavaai sacred to the Aran (God Siva) constructed in his glorious name a wide street for His procession, instituted a festival and conducted a grand procession for the Sokkar who wielded the great mountain as his bow and, destroyed the three celestial cities and prostrated himself before Him on the processional street so covered the shrine Thiruaalavaai in Then Madurai with gold that it might well be called a hill of gold gave with pleasure all the shining gold levied as tribute from Chola-Paandiya mandalam which was fertilised by the floods of Vaikai river and the Iraiyili lands to the Paingili (Godess Sakthi)....the Aran of Thiruaalavai who wears the honeyed blossoms on his matted locks and established Agarams for the Brahmins well versed in all the hymns of the Vedas....."
Inscription of Kulothunga Chola - 3, on the south wall of the Vamsodharakar temple, Thirumayam, Puddukkattai State.
Inscriptions of the Pudukkottai State - Vol 2, Inscription No 163.

Note: This same Meikeerththi (True Glory) is found in another Inscription on the wall of the Sikhanathaswami temple in it's second pirakaram at Kudimiyamalai at Kulattur. (Inscriptions of the Pudukkottai State - Vol 2, Inscription No 166).

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திண் பொன் தட மாமதில் சூழ் திரு ஆல வாயின்
விண் பிற்பட ஓங்கிய கோபுரம்

The later Paandiya period of rule in Tamil Nadu from Madurai

The Muslim period of rule in Madurai, Tamil Nadu

TÁRÍKH-I 'ALÁÍ (KHAZÁÍNU-L FUTÚH) OF AMÍR KHUSRÚ

Capture of Southern Mathra (Madura).

After five days, the royal canopy moved from Bírdhúl on Thursday, the 17th of Zí-l ka'da, and arrived at Kham, and five days afterwards they arrived at the city Mathra (Madura), the dwelling-place of the brother of the Ráí Sundar Pándyá. They found the city empty, for the Ráí had fled with the Ránís, but had left two or three elephants in the temple of Jagnár (Jag-ganáth).” The elephants were captured and the temple burnt.

When the Malik came to take a muster of his captured ele*phants they extended over a length of three parasangs, and amounted to five hundred and twelve, besides five thousand horses, Arabian and Syrian, and five hundred mans of jewels of every description—diamonds, pearls, emeralds, and rubies.
Return to Dehli.

On Sunday, the 4th of Zí-l hijja, 710 H. Malik Káfúr, accom*panied by his army, returned towards Dehli with all the plunder, and arrived in safety on Monday, the 4th of Jumáda-s Sání, 711 H. Sultán 'Aláu-d dín held a public darbár in front of the Golden Palace, and all the nobles and chiefs stood on the right and on the left, according to their rank. Malik Náib Káfúr Hazár-dínárí, with the officers who had accompanied him, were presented to the Sultán, before whom the rich booty was ex*hibited. The Sultán was much gratified, loaded the warriors with honour, and the darbár was dissolved.

TÁRÍKH-I FÍROZ SHÁHÍ
OF
ZÍÁU-D DÍN BARNÍ.

Towards the end of the year 710 H. (1310 A.D.) the Sultán sent an army under Malik Náíb Káfúr against Dhúr-samundar and Ma'bar. The Malik, with Khwája Hájí, Náíb-i 'áriz, took leave of the Sultán and proceeded to Rábarí, where the army collected. They then proceeded to Deogír, where they found that Rámdeo was dead, and from Deogír to the confines of Dhúr-samundar. At the first onslaught Billál Ráí fell into the hands of the Muhammadans, and Dhúr-samundar was captured. Thirty-six elephants, and all the treasures of the place, fell into the hands of the victors. A despatch of victory was then sent to Dehlí, and Malik Náíb Káfúr marched on to Ma'bar, which he also took. He destroyed the golden idol temple (but-khánah-i zarín) of Ma'bar, and the golden idols which for ages (karnhá) had been worshipped by the Hindus of that country. The fragments of the golden temple, and of the broken idols of gold and gilt, became the rich spoil of the army. In Ma'bar there were two Ráís, but all the elephants and treasure were taken from both, and the army turned home*wards flushed with victory. A despatch of victory was sent to the Sultán, and in the early part of 711 H. (1311 A.D.) the army reached Dehlí, bringing with it six hundred and twelve elephants, ninety-six thousand mans of gold, several boxes of jewels and pearls, and twenty thousand horses. Malik Náíb Káfúr pre*sented the spoil to the Sultán in the palace at Sírí on different occasions, and the Sultán made presents of four mans, or two mans, or one man, or half a man of gold to the maliks and amírs.

The Karnataka period of rule in Madurai, Tamil Nadu

The Naayakkar period of rule in Madurai, Tamil Nadu

".....அங்கயற்கண்[ணி]
டழுவிய சங்கத் தமிழ்ச் சொக்கரென் றென்று....."

Madurai Kalambakam - Saint Kumarakuruparar Adikal

பரசிருக்குந் தமிழ்க்கூடற் பழியஞ்சிச் சொக்கருடன்
அரசிருக்கு அங்கயற்கண்ணா ரமுதைப் பாடுவனே.

Madurai Meenatchiammai Kuram - Saint Kumarakuruparar Adikal


".....கடம்பவனச் சொக்கரங்கயற்கண்
டழுவிய சங்கத் தமிழ்ச் சொக்க ரென்றென்று சந்ததம்......."

Madurai Meenatchiammai Kuram - Saint Kumarakuruparar Adikal[/color]

ரங்கயற்கண்
டழுவிய சங்கத் தமிழ்ச்சொக்க ரென்றென்று சந்ததம்நீ
பழகிய சொற்குப் பயன்றேர்ந்து வாவிங்கென் பைங்கிளியே

Madurai ......... - Saint Kumarakuruparar Adikal


Th pa malai
20
மன்னு கடவுட் கணிறுவினை மாற்றியதன்
பின்ன ரடைந்த பெருவணிகன்-தன்னால்

அறிந்த வழுதி யழகிய சொக்கர்
உறைந்த திருவெல்லை யுற்று-நிறந்தயங்கும்

மண்டபமுஞ் சூளிகையு மாளிகையு நீளுமணித்
தண்டரள பீடிகையுஞ் சாளரமும்-மண்டுமெழில்

அங்கயற்க ணம்மைதிரு வாலயமு மாமதிகளும்
பொங்குமணிக் கோபுரமும் பூங்கிடங்கும்-எங்கணும்

நீடுபல வீதிகளு நேரின்றித் தாரகையைக்
கூடி வளர்மாட கூடமுடன்-ஆடகத்

25
தெற்றியுந் தோரணமுஞ் செய்குன்றுந் தேர்நிரையும்
சுற்று மலர்த்தடமுஞ் சோலைகளும்-மற்றும்

நலமுடைய வெல்லா நகரமைத்துத் தென்பாற்
குலவு வடபாற் குடபாற்-கலையூரும் chokkanathar ula



"......தழல்இ லங்கு திருவுருச் சைவனே
ஞாலம் நின்புக ழேமிக வேண்டுந்தென்
ஆல வாயில் உறையும்எம் ஆதியே......"

From the 18th century when Mathurai was ruled by the Nayakkar kings the names of the God and Godess of this temple was changed into "Sundareswarer" and "Meenaakshi"

Epilogue

http://img1.dinamalar.com/Kovilimages/T_500_21.jpg
Courtesy: Dinamalar.com

http://www.mylaibazar.com/indian-her...ple_-_0781.jpg
Courtesy: mylaibazar.com

http://kaveri.org/wp/wp-content/medi...shi_temple.jpg
Courtesy: Kaveri.org

http://i.imgur.com/6nMUE.jpg
Courtesy: Imgur.com

http://img118.imageshack.us/img118/7203/1000rn9.jpg
Courtesy: imageshack.us

The Mathurai Meenaakshi Sunthareswarer temple at present Mathurai of Tamil Nadu is another Architectural Master-piece of Tamilian Architecture & Sculpture - the very late Paandiyan Art at it's maturity executed during Paandiyan period, and subsequent to the Muslim invasions "renovations and some additions" were made to the temple during the Nayakkar rule of Mathurai in the 'same style' with Tamil Sculptors. This temple in it's final form stands on 17 acres and the complete structure is with an outer boundry wall having four tall Outer Gopurams as it main gateways to the temple on all four sides.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p-00...yer_detailpage Present Mathurai Meenaakshi Sunthareswarer Temple, Tamil Nadu - Part 1

Outer Raja Gopurams

The outer East Gopuram (also known as Sunthara Paandiyan Gopuram) was started by Maravarman Sunthara Paandiyan - 2 (A.D.1239-1253) and completed by Sadaiyavarman Sunthara Paandiyan - 1 (A.D.1251-1292) who ruled from Mathurai (Madurai).

The outer West Gopuram was built by Sadaiyavarman Parakkrama Paandiyan - 1 (A.D.1364-1387) who ruled from Mathurai, after being 're-instated' by Kumara Kambannan of Vijayanagara Empire defeating the last Muslim Sultan from Mathurai in A.D.1364.

The outer South Gopuram was built by Siraamalai Sevanthi Chettiyar in A.D.1559 during the period of Visvanatha Nayakkar (A.D.1559-1563) in Mathurai.

The outer North Gopuram was built by Krishnappa Nayakkar (A.D.1564-1572) who demised half way through it's constuction (later known as Mottai Gopuram), and was completed by Vainaakaram Chettiyaar in A.D.1878 during the British period of Tamil Nadu.

Inner Sannathi Gopurams

Sunthareswarer Sannathi

The inner Swami Sannathi Gopuram was built by King Kulasekara Paandian in (A.D.1168–1175).

The inner Gopura Nayaka Gopuram another Swami Sannathi gopuram was constructed by Vasuvappan in A.D.1372

The inner Mukkuruni Vinayagar Gopuram or Naatukottai or Idaikattu Gopuram was constructed by Siraamalai Sevanthi Chettiyar in A.D.1559.

4. Wooden gopuram (timber) or the Swami Sannithi west gopuram It was constructed by Mallappan in the year 1374.

5. Sinnamottai gopuram (roofless gopuram) or Swami Sannithi North Gopuram. It was constructed by Sevanthivellappa Chetti in 1560.

Meenaakshi Amman Sannathi

1. Amman Sannithi gopuram (three tier) was constructed by Anandathandava Nambi between A.D.1227-1228.

2. Katahagopuram or Amman Sannithi west gopuram was constructed in the year A.D.1570 by Veerathummasi.

3. Chiththira Gopuram or Amman Sannithi gopuram was constructed by Kallathiappan Mudaliar in the year 1569.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qkEN...layer_embedded Present Mathurai Meenaakshi Sunthareswarer Temple, Tamil Nadu - Part 2

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XaBC...yer_detailpage

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XaBC...yer_detailpage

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=53ab...layer_embedded

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JA-H...yer_detailpage - Courtesy Rammaruty - YouTube

The following is another beautiful Video on the Scupltural Interior of Madurai Meenaakshi Thirukkoyil

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IxF7...yer_detailpage
As it has been disabled by the Owner being played in other Websites, it could be viewed at the undermentioned URL in the "Youtube" Website.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?featur...&v=IxF7-L4aXxk - Courtesy Prakash Manjekrar - YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ynna...yer_detailpage

Important Note:

The Thenkaasi Visvanathar temple as it is today is the finest "Tamil Architectural and Sculptural Monument" of the later "Paandiyan period", with much maturity in their fine sculpture of awsome monolithic figurines in this temple. It is this temple layout and the technique of finest sculpture of the "Kaasi Visvanather Temple at Thenkaasi" built during the period of Paraakkrama Paandiyan (A,D.1422-1463) by Paandiyan sculptors, were adopted to re-model the badly damaged sections (after Muslim invasion) of the Mathurai Meenaakshi temple to the same design and style, by the first Nayakkar king of Mathurai the Visvanatha Nayakkar and his chief minister Ariyanatha Muthaliyar - a native Tamil from Thondai Mandalam much later in the years around (A.D.1529-1564). The Puthu Mandapam with it's fine Sculptures in front of the Mathurai Meenakshi temple built by Ariyanatha Muthaliyar on behalf of Nayakkar king, is almost similer to the Puthu Mandapam with Sculptures built in front of Thenkaasi Visvanather temple. Hence Art Historians of Tamil Nadu 'are not justified' in calling the renovated sections of Mathurai Meenaakshi temple under Nayakkar kings - are of Nayakkar Sculptural or Architectural style, but correctly as the "Paandiyan style of Sculpture and Architecture at it's maturity" (i.e. not Dravidian Sculpture and Architecture, but the Tamilian Sculpture and Architecture) that was prevalent in Paandiya Nadu at the time of the very beginning of Nayakkar rule in Mathurai in A.D.1529.



[To be continued]




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