A brief study on the Tamil Muththaraiyar dynasty of Tamil Nadu

Thread started by virarajendra on 22nd February 2013 11:05 PM



Author - Virarajendra

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A brief study on the Tamil Muththaraiyar dynasty (A.D.731-848) of Tamil Nadu

(1) The earliest Muththaraiyar Chieftain of the Vallam region of Chola country

The Muththaraiyar were a dynasty of "Tamil Chieftains" who ruled from the Vallam region (in the present Thanjavur Maawattam of Tamil Nadu), and came into prominance for the first time in the history of Tamil Nadu during the period of the Pallava king Nanthivarman - 2 (A.D.709-774).

The fact that they had been a Tamil dynasty of Tamil Nadu is confirmed by the existance of a Tamil Composition of the Muttharaiyar period titled "Tamil Muththaraiyar Kovai" which is lost to us today. Further suffix "Araiyar" of the name "Muththaraiyar" is the Tamil word for 'King'.

The following References confirms the above :

".......Kumarasenaasiriyar Kovaiyum, Thamil Muththaraiyar Kovaiyum, Yaapparungkalak Kaarikaiyum poantra santhaththaal varuvanavattrin ......."
Yaapparungkalam - by Amithasaakaranaar, page 553, International Institute of Tamil Studies - Publication.


(2) Perumpiduhu Muththaraiyan alias Kuvaavan Maaran

This earliest "known" Tamil Muththaraiyar king (from Inscriptions and Historical Records of the contemporay period) was Perumpiduhu Muththaraiyan alias Kuvaavan Maaran. It appears this king was the forerunner of Muththaraiyar dynasty of Tamil Nadu with their seat of power being at Vallam the present Senthlalai who for the first time allied with the Pallava king Nanthivarman - 2 and assisted him in their war ventures with other kingdoms.

(3) Ilangovadi Araiyan alias Maaran Parameswaran

He was followed by his son on the Vallam throne named Ilangovadi Araiyan alias Maaran Parameswaran. He too continued to be an ally with the Pallava king Nanthivarman - 2 and bore the title as "Cembudi". During the period of his rule he built a granite temple at Melamalai at Narththaamalai dedicated to Siva.

The following References confirms the above :

".....Svasti Sri Cembudiyaana Ilango (Aa)thiaraiyar eduppitta Kattrali (stone temple)....."
Inscriptions in the Pudukkottai State - by K.R. Srinivaasa Ayyar, part 1, Inscription No: 11-A


(4) Peumpiduhu Muththaraiyan alias Suvaran Maaran

He son who ascended the throne of the Muththaraiyar dynasty named Peumpiduhu Muththaraiyan alias Suvaran Maaran. It was he who brought his dynasty into much prominence in the Tamil Nadu history. His Queen was known as Perumpiduhu Perunthevi.

The Muttharaiyan king Suvaran Maran with much closer ties with Nanthivarman - 2 assisted him in 'many' of his war expeditions within Tamil Nadu which ended-up in much success. He lead the Pallava war expedition along with his forces against the Paandiya king Arikesari Maravarman Parangkusan (A.D.710-765) in which he secured victory to the Pallavas, and assumed the titles of the Paandiyar as 'Maaran' and 'Nedumaaran' for himself.

The following References confirms No: 1, No: 2, No: 3 in the above :

"......dutta [Pe]rumpidugu Muttarai
yan ahina Kuvávan M[aaran]
avan
makan Ilangovadiyaraiyan
ayina Maran Paramesvaran

avan makan Perumpidugu Mutta-
raiyan ayina Suvaran Maáran
avan
eduppitta Padari (Pidari) koyil avan
erinda uurgalum avar perka-
lum avanaip paadi ullaar perkalum
ith thoongan mél eladina ivai......"
Epigraphia Indica - Vol 13, No: 10 Senthalai Pillar Inscriptions on the north face of the first pillar, page 139


"......Marappadai Minavan vall aran Pallavan senaikku anru purappada maaru perra kalirru....."
".......en kaiy alavirrey panavihal vikku mankaich cheru vel mavaliya......."
Epigraphia Indica - Vol 13, No: 10 Senthalai Pillar Inscriptions on the west & east face of the second pillar, page 141&142

".....panaiyaip pakadu kooda antru Pallavan vella Thennan munaiyaik kedach chentra Maaran
mugili valar pili undach chunaiyach chunai manipparai apparai sollen vilainda vinaiyai paparalu virikki......"
Epigraphia Indica - Vol 13, No: 10 Senthalai Pillar Inscriptions on the south face of the second pillar, page 145

".....talam pusar Thingalur tevvar manam talara Thennan velan kalappattadu konda Venthan
man pumalar valunda valaitto Nedu Maran.....var chulum......tanden....."
Epigraphia Indica - Vol 13, No: 10 Senthalai Pillar Inscriptions on the west face of the third pillar, page 147

"......r panmakanei pandu elam yam arithum engayarkkei sollu niy MaaMaran kai Tennadar kadaliyar tiynada vay sivanda minnadu Ven Maran mei......"
Epigraphia Indica - Vol 13, No: 10 Senthalai Pillar Inscriptions on the west face of the fourth pillar, page 148]


Note:

The Tamil treatise "Paandikkovai" was sung on the Pandiyan king Arikesari Paraankusa Paandiyan of the contemporary period. In same the Paandiyan king is referred to as Arikesari, Paraankusa, Maaran and as Nedumaaran. Hence it is clear the Arikesari Parankusa Paandiyan was also known as "Maaran" and "Nedu Maaran". With the Perumpiduhu Muththaraiyan alias Suvaran Maaran's victory over Paandiya's in the outer regions of Mathurai of Paandiya country on behalf of the Pallava king Nirupatungavarman, lead him to assume the Paandiyan titles "Maaran" and "Nedu Maaran" for himself as seen in the Senthalaik Kalvettukal.

(5) Peumpiduhu Muththaraiyan alias Suvaran Maaran capture further regions on behalf of Nirupatunga Pallava

(6) Peumpiduhu Muththaraiyan alias Suvaran Maaran patronises Tamil Poets

With his war acheivements on behalf of Nirupatunga Pallava he came to limelight as the greatest among the Muththaraiyar kings in the recorded history. He during his prosperous period of rule also patronised Tamil Poets. One of the Poets (name not known) composed the a praise poem on the greatness of the Perumpiduku Muththaraiyan named as "Thamil Muththaraiyar Kovai" (which very unfortunately not available to us). The book on code of ethics known as "Naaladiyaar" in Tamil was composed by a Jain (Samaner) Poet during this period. In two poem in this work Perumpiduku Muththaraiyan was referred to as Peru "Muththaraiyar". Both references speaks to his hospitality towards the people who come to him for assistance.

The following References confirms the above:

[i]"Peru Muththaraiyar perithu vanthu eeyum karunai soraarvaar......"
Naaladiyaar - by a Jain (Samana) Poet, Verse No: 200

"Nal koornththa kannum Peru Muththaraiyare seravarai sentru eravaathaar....."
Naaladiyaar - by a Jain (Samana) Poet, Verse No: 296

".......Kumarasenaasiriyar Kovaiyum, Thamil Muththaraiyar Kovaiyum, Yaapparungkalak Kaarikaiyum poantra santhaththaal varuvanavattrin ......."
Yaapparungkalam - by Amithasaakaranaar, page 553, International Institute of Tamil Studies - Publication.










(7) Saththan Maaran succeeds Peumpiduhu Muththaraiyan alias Suvaran Maaran

With the demise of 'Peumpiduhu Muththaraiyan alias Suvaran Maaran' his son 'Saaththan Maaran' ascended the throne as the next king of the Muththaraiyar dynasty. As he was closely allied to the contemporary Pallava king the Nanthivarman - 2 he too was given the title as 'Videlviduhu' the title of Nanthivarman - 2, and also was called as 'Vilupperathi Araiyan'. His mother was Perumpiduhu Perundevi.

The following References confirms the above :

"......Prosperity Renovation (of the temple) by Perumbidugu Perunthevi mother of Sattan Maran also called Videlavidugu Viluperaathi Arayan....for the God of the Sanctum sanctorium a free gift of lands in the village of ......of Andakkudi is granted as a tax-free gift inclusive of the rights of cultivation, tenency, and proprietorship"
Inscriptions in the Pudukkottai State - by K.R. Srinivaasa Ayyar, Part 1, Inscription No: 13


(6) Maarppiduhu Peraathi Arayan

With the demise of Nanthivarman - 2, his son Dantivarman (A.D.744–793) acended the Pallava throne. With the death of Videlavidugu Viluperaathi Arayan his son Maarppiduhu Peraathi Arayan succeeded as the next Muththaraiyar king during the period of their overlord the Pallava king Dantivarman. During this period in the year A.D.749 one Kalimurkka Ilavaraiyan a subordinate of the Maarppiduhu Peraathi Araiyan constructed (dug) tank and named it as Valieri.

The following References confirms the above :

".....Hail ! Prosperity ! In the fifth year of Ko Visaiya Dantipottaraiyar. Vali Vadukan otherwise called Kalimurkka Ilavaraiyan a subordinate of Maarppiduhu Peraathi Arayar had this tank called Vali Eri dug. Let the feet of the person who preserves this tank be for ever on my head....."
Inscriptions in the Pudukkottai State - by K.R. Srinivaasa Ayyar, part 1, Inscription No: 17


(7) Videlviduhu Muththaraiyan alias Kuvavan Saaththan

It was during this period the the Muththraiyar king Marpiduku Perathi Araiyan died and was followed by Videlviduku Muththaraiyan on the throne. In the year A.D.760 during being the 16th year of their overlord the Pallava king Dantivarman (A.D.744-93), he carved out a Shrine on the rock on the hill at Thiruvalattur and consecrated the image of Bhatarar. This temple appears to have been maintained by the people of Keel Sengili Nadu.

The following References confirms the above :

"Hail ! Prosperity ! In the sixteenth year of Kovisaya Dantipanmar, I Videlvidigu Mutthariyan also called Kuvavan Sattan had the hill of Tiruvalattur carved out to form a temple and installed and consecrated Bhatarar. This temple ....Kil Sengili nattu.....to the Naattar"
Inscriptions in the Pudukkottai State - by K.R. Srinivaasa Ayyar, Part 1, Inscription No: 18


(8) Saaththan Paliyili

After the death of Kuvavan Saaththan his son Saaththan Paliyili ascended the throne. During this period Nanthivarman - 3 (A.D.793-816) in his last stages of life made his eldest son Nirupathungavarman (A.D.816–840) as his successor of to the Pallava empire stretching from the Thondaimandalam region up to Pudukkottai region, and the youngest son Kampavarman (A.D.816–848) the region of Thanjavur of the Pallava empire.

In the year A.D.823 he excavated a (rock cut) Siva temple on the rock of the hill at Narthamalai and named as Paliyiliiswarem. A Mukamandapam, the image of a Bull and a shed for same was subsequently built by the son of the king Palayili who was later known as Muththaraiyan. He also had a daughter by the name Paliyili Sriya Nangai who was married to "Meenavan" Thamil Aathiaraiyan alias Mallan Vidumaan, also known as "Thennavan" Thamil Aathiaraiyan from the Paandiyan household. Paliyili Sriya Nangai gave endowments to the (chief) priest of this temple the Pattudaiyavan in the name of God Rudra (God Siva) of the Paliyilieswarem.

The following References confirms the above :

"......Hail! Prosperity! In the seventh year of Kovisaiya Nirupatonga Vikkiramar . Great temple which Sattan Paliyili son of Videlavidugu Muttaraiyan had excavated. For this great temple a mukhamandapa and a risabhakottil were got made by the son of Sattan Paliyilli. To Minavan Thamiladiaraiyan also called Valan Anandan, Paliyili Siriyanangai was the wife.....She made an endowment as archchanaabokam....I Paliyili Siriyanangai made this gift (gift) unto the Pattudaiyavan (Priest)....on behalf of the God Rudra of the 'Paliyilieswarem'....."
Inscriptions in the Pudukkottai State - by K.R. Srinivaasa Ayyar, Part 1, Inscription No: 19


(9) Vijayaalaya Chola of Palaiyaarai captures Thanjavur defeating the Mutharaiyar king Saaththan Paliyili

During this period Vijayaalaya Chola (A.D.848-880) of the Chola dynasty was ruling the western region of the traditional Chola Nadu with his capital at Palaiyaarai in the present Thirutchirappalli region, as a Sittrarasan under the Pallava king Nirupathungavarman (A.D.816-840). With the demise of Nirupathungavarman his brother Kampavarman (A.D.816-848) succeeded on the Pallava throne.

His rule apparently didnot last long as in the year A.D.848 the Vijayaalaya Chola invaded Thanjavur and the other neighbouring regions of the traditional Chola Nadu, defeated the Pallava king Kampavarman who held control over them and his subordinate Muththaraiyar king Saaththan Paliyili who ruled from Thanjavur. With the capture of Thanjavur Vijayaalaya Chola re-built same as the new capital city of the Chola dynasty with many sky-high Mansions.

Most Important Notes:

It is being wrongly highlighted 'since of late' by some irresponsible Scholars that the Medieval Cholas emerged from the Muththaraiyar dynasty the Tamil Chieftains of Tamil Nadu of this period, which is completely a baseless theory and holds no water. Medieval Cholas had "no direct connections" whatsoever with the Muththaraiyar kings, who were "subordinate" Tamil Chieftains under the Chola kings Vijayaalaya, Aathiththa and (Maduraikonda) - Paraanthaha. The "Perumpiduku", "Maarpiduku" and "Videlviduku" - are the Pallava titles bestowed on the Muththaraiyar Chieftains by the Pallava kings for being faithfull allys to them. "Paranthaka" (Paranthaka Muththaraiyan) and Chola (Chola Muththaraiyan) are Chola titles bestowed on the Muththaraiyar Chieftains by the Chola kings for being faithful subordinates to them. "Chola Muththaraiyan" from an Inscription of Rajaraja Chola - 1 means a Muththaraiyar Chieftain to whom the title "Chola" has been bestowed by the Chola king Rajaraja - 1 for being faithfull to him. "Chola Muththaraiyan" doesnot mean that the Muththaraiyar Chieftains had dynastic connections with the Cholas, or the Muththaraiyer Chieftains later became the Cholas and bore that name - as very wrongly interpreted by some Scholars.

Muththaraiyar also have no historical connections with the Kalabhra dynasty of South Karnataka, or with the small number of Mudiraj community living in Tamil Nadu - who were original natives of Andhra Pradesh - and came to work under the Nayakkar kings (also from Andhra) who ruled from Mathurai (A.D.1520-1736), Thanjavur (A.D.1520-1674), and Senji (Gingee) (A.D.1520-1640) of Tamil Nadu, with the heavy inflow of Telugu people into Tamil Nadu during this period.

The Muththaraiyar were native Tamils of Tamil Nadu and Saivites by religion, while Kalabhras were native Karnatakas (Kannada) and Jains (Samanar) by religion, Mudirajs were native Andras (Telugus) and Hindus (Saivite, Vaishnavite & Sakthi worship) by religion.

The following References confirms the above :

".......Ta[n]chai konta Ko Parakesaripa[n]ma[r]kku yandu 3........"
Annual Report of South indian Epigraphy 1935-1936, page 72

".....Thanjai Maanakar Vijayaalaya Cholanathu peranum, Aathitha Cholanathu puthalvanumaana Mathuraikonda Parakesarivarmanathu (Paraanthaha Cholan)......"
Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy - 1905, Inscription No: 630

".....In this family of that (king) of extensive glory was born the emperor Kochchenganaan......In the illustruious family of that (king) was born Vijayaalaya of praiseworthy prowess.....He the light of thr Solar race took posscession of Thanchapuri, which to the sight was a as beautiful as Alaka (chief town of Kubera) had reached the sky (with) white washed mansions.....Having next consecrated the (image of godess) Nisumbhasudani....."
South-Indian Inscriptions Vol - 3, Part 3-4, Thiruvaalangkadu Cheppedukal, page 418

".....In the course of time there arose in this Chola dynasty the king Vijayaalaya who came to be obeyed by many chieftains. He vanquished the mighty and well established Kampavarman of the Pallava dynasty, He beautified the Thanchapuri as the chief ornament for the Ravikula. Herein he built many skyscraper mansions......"
Thiruvinthaluur Cheppedukal - Sanskrit portion translated by Sankaranaaraayan, page19, Tamil Nadu Arasu Tholiyalthurai, Chennai Tamil Nadu

".......There was a Chola king in this race named Karikala (v49)......[u]In this family was born (one) named Vijayaalaya.....that king constructed in the Chola country a town named Thanchapuri provided with all advantages of a new (city)....."
Travancore Archaeological Series - Vol 1, Kanyakumari Inscription, Page 154-155

"......atthahaiya Karikaalan ennum mannan am marabil thontrinaan. Am marabil thontri ulakam mlumaiyum thaniyaatchi seluththiya ennattra Veantharkal vinnulakai adaintha piraku, kadal soolnththa ivvulakai kuntratha peruvaliyudan puranthavanaana Visayaalayan entra peyar ulla venthan thontrinaan.....'
Karanthai Thamil Sangha Cheppedukal - Tamil Poli, page 100

(10) Saaththan Paliyili continues to rule from Puthukkottai as a subordinate to Vijayaalaya Chola

The Muththaraiyar king with his loss of Thanjavur to Cholas were given to rule the Kudumiyanmalai region in the Puthukkottai district as subordinate to the Chola king Vijayaalaya Chola (A.D.848-881).

A standing Siva temple at Narththamalai built earlier by the Mutharaiyan king Cembudi alias Ilango Aathiaraiyan, which was adjacent to the rock-cut Paliyilieswarem excavated later by the Muththaraiyar king Saaththan Paliyili, after some years was hit by a heavy lighting on a rainy day and was destroyed. The Meenavan (also known as Thennavan) Thamilaathiaraiyan the son-in-law of the Muththaraiyan king Saaththan Paliyili rebuilt this temple with extentions, on the instructions of his Chola overlord the 'Vijayaalaya Chola' after whom it was named as the "Vijayaalaya Cholaeswarem".

The following References confirms the above :

"......Svasti Sri Cembudiyana Ilango (Aa)thiaraiyar eduppiththa Ka(t)rrali malai (idi) idittaliya Mallan Vidumaan aayina Thennavan Thamilaathi Araiyan puthukku......."
Inscriptions in the Pudukkottai State - by K.R. Srinivaasa Ayyar, Part 1, Inscription (at the main entrance to the Vijayaalaya Choliswarem, at Narthamalai) No: 11A


(11) Perumpiduhu Muththaraiyar succeeds at Puthukkottai as subordinate to Aathiththa Chola

In the year A.D.881 with the death of Vijayaalaya Chola his son Aathiththa Chola (A.D.871-907) became the next successor on the Chola throne after being the heir-apparent from A.D.870 to A.D.880, while the Muththaraiyar king Saaththan Paliyili continued his rule from Kudumiyaanmalai region of the Puthukkottai district as a subordinate of Athiththa Chola.

After some years Saaththan Paliyili demised and was succeeded by his son Perumpiduhu Muththaraiyar. He married within the Muththaraiyar family circle the 'Eravakko Maakko-Makalaar' daughter of Muththaraiyar Nambi. The Perumpiduku Muththaraiyar had a daughter-in-Law named 'Nangaiyar Nava....' who was the elder sister of Vikkiramakesari the Tamil Irukku Velir Chieftain of Kodumbalur of this period.

In the year A.D.900 Nangaiyar Nava... the daughter-in-law of Perumpiduhu Muththaraiyar donated a Lamp to be burnt in the temple and two and a half Kalanju Gold for it's expenses at Melaikoyil at Kudumiyaanmalai.

The following References confirms the above :

".......Hail ! Prosperity ! In the twentieth year of Ko Irasakesari-parumar. In this year Nangaiyar Nava....the daughter-in-law of Eravakkomakkomakalar who was the daughter of Muttaraiyar Nambi, the wife of Perumpiduhu Muttaraiyar and the elder sister of Vikkramakesari gave a lamp to burn perpetually, and two kalanju a half of gold......."
Inscriptions in the Pudukkottai State - by K.R. Srinivaasa Ayyar, Part 1, Inscription (at rock-cut Melaikkovil at Kudumiyaanmalai) No: 31


(12) Parakesari Muththaraiyar succeeds at Puthukkottai as subordinate to Paraanthaka Chola - 1

With the death of Perumpiduku Muththaraiyar, Parakesari Muththaraiyar succeeded on the Puthukkottai throne and being a faithfull subordinate of the Chola king the Maduraikonda Parakesaripanmar (Paraanthaka Chola - 1) (A.D.907-955) was given the title of the Chola king as prefix to his name the Muththaraiyar.

In the year A.D.939 the Parakesari Muththaraiyar provided endowments to the Subbramaniar temple at Thiruththani temple near the village Aguvur, west of Perumkanchi in Ogavalanadu in Malur Kottam od Jayamkondachola mandalam (Thondai mandalam).

The following References confirms the above :

"......in the thirty second year of the Chola king Maduraikonda Parakesari (Parantaka) gifted land by Parakesari Muttaraiyan to the temple of Subrahmanya Pillayar, who was pleased to stand on the hill at Thiruttaniyal near Aguvur the eastern hamlet of Perumkanchi in Ogavalanadu of Malur kottam, which formed part of Jayamkondachola mandalam."
On a stone set up close to the garbhagraha of the Subrahmanya temple in the same village
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol..


(13) Muththaraiyar loose the confidence of Cholas as faithfull subordinates under Paranthaha Chola -1

It appears during the period of Raajaathithya Chola son of Paraanthaha Chola the Muththaraiyar Chieftains lost the confidence of Cholas and we hear nothing of them thereafter during the period of Kandaraathithya Chola, Arinjaya Chola in the inscriptions and other historical documents.

(14) Muththaraiyar regain the confidence of Cholas as faithfull subordinates under Paraanthaka Chola - 2

After Arinjaya Chola, his son Paraanthaha Chola - 2 also known as Sunthera Cholan acended the Chola throne. It was during this period the Muththaraiyar re-gained the confidence as faithfull subordinates of Cholas. During this period the consort of Araiyan Mahimaalayan alias Paraanthaha Muttaraiyan named Panchavanmadevi apparently a Paandiyan princess married to him gave a gift of 12 1/2 kalanju gold for one ullakku ghee daily for burning lamp to the image of Chandrasekara Perumal.

The following References confirms the above :

"......a gift of 12˝ kalanju of gold for burning a perpetual lamp before the image of Chandrasekhara-Perumal in the temple by Panchavanmadevi the consort (araisi) of Araiyan Mahimalayan alias Parantaka Muttaraiyan. The Manradikkalanai of the place received the amount and agreed to supply an ulakku of ghee daily for the purpose......."
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 13, No. 288. An inscription on the north wall of the central shrine of Anantisvara temple at Udayarkudi, Chithamparam Taluk S.A.


(15) Muththaraiyar serve as high officials under Rajaraja Chola - 1

After Paraanthaka Chola - 2 alias Sundera Chola king Utthama Chola regined on the Chola throne. After him Rajaraja Chola - 1 acended on the Chola throne. During his time Muththaraiyar contined to be in the service of Cholas as faithfull suboradinates. The Muththariyar king of this period received the title "Chola" prefixed to his name in honour of his honourable service to Rajaraja Chola and was known as Araiyan Sankaranarayana alias Sola Muththaraiyar.



The following References confirms the above :

".......an agreement given by the Sivabrahmanas headed by Kasyapan Kunran Singa-Bhattan and Bharadvaji Korran Tiruvaranga-Bhattan of Periya Sri-Vanavamadevi-chaturvedimangalam to Araiyan Sankaranarayana alias Sola Muttaraiyar, that they would regularly conduct services.....for the endowment of land made by him under the Vadagudi tank. The services comprised daily worship, special bath, offering and worship on the two Ayana-Sankranti and two Vishu days, and also on the day of Visakha in Vaigasi month, and the maintenance of a perpetual lamp. They bound themselves to be supervised by the Mahesvara-Narpattennayiravar and to pay fines in case of default to the vaiya-perumakkal of the assembly....."
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol XIX No. 331. On the north wall of the central shrine, Gangajatadhara temple Govindaputtur, Udiyarpalayam Taluk, Trichinoploy District.

"......an endowment tax-free of ten plots of land after purchasing them from their several owners by Sekkilan Araiyan Sankaranarayanan alias Sola Muttaraiyar of Merpaluvur in Manaiyir-kottam of Tondai-nadu, who left them for charitable purposes in charge of the assembly of Viranarayana-chaturvedimangalam, called the Sasanabaddha-chaturvedibhatta-perumbadi-sahasradana-perumakkal......"
South Indian Inscriptions - Vol XIII No.146 On the north wall of the central shrine, On the north, west and south walls of the central shrine, Anantisvara temple.


Kulottunga I

No. 155 (Page No 124)

(A. R. No.155 of 1907)

Kottur near Malaikkoyil, Tirumayam Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District

On a stone set up on the bund of the tank

Kulottunga I : year 47 : 1116-17 A.D.

This records the repair to the tank-bund which is said to have been built by one Mummudisola-Singalantaka-Muttaraiyan and destroyed by breach some time afterwards. The repair was effected by Periyan Kulottungasola-Kanakarajan, the headman of Kottiyur in Kana-nadu.







-------------------------------------------------


(15) Nanthivarman - II {Pallavamallan} (A.D. 709-744) 65-----------------------
(16) Danthivarman ------------------49 (A.D.744-793)
(17) Nanthivarman - III (A.D.793-816)--------------23
(18) Nirupathungavarman - (A.D.816-840).......41??? or 24
(19) Kampavarman - (A.D.816-848) - He was a co-regent with his elder brother Nirupathungavarman-------32
(20) Aparajithavarman - (A.D.848-866) son of Kampavarman -----18

SII - Vol XIX No. 331

(A.R. No. 157 of 1929)

Govindaputtur, Udiyarpalayam Taluk, Trichinoploy District

On the north wall of the central shrine, Gangajatadhara temple

This registers an agreement given by the Sivabrahmanas headed by Kasyapan Kunran Singa-Bhattan and Bharadvaji Korran Tiruvaranga-Bhattan of Periya Sri-Vanavamadevi-chaturvedimangalam to Araiyan Sankaranarayana alias SolaMuttaraiyar, that they would regularly conduct by him in the village, for the endowment of land made by him under the Vadagudi tank. The services comprised daily worship, special bath, offering and worship on the two Ayana-Sankranti and two Vishu days, and also on the day of Visakha in Vaigasi month, and the maintenance of a perpetual lamp. They bound themselves to be supervises by the Mahesvara-Narpattennayiravar and to pay fines in case of default to the vaiya-perumakkal of the assembly.

SII XIII No. 146.

(A.R. No. 585 of 1920.)

Udayargudi (Near Kattumannarkoyil), Chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north, west and south walls of the central shrine, Anantisvara temple.

This records an endowment, tax-free, of ten plots of land after purchasing them from their several owners by Sekkilan Araiyan Sankaranarayanan alias solamuttaraiyan of Merpaluvur in Manaiyir-kottam of Tondai-nadu, who left them for charitable purposes in charge of the assembly of Viranarayana-chaturvedimangalam, called the Sasanabaddha-chaturvedibhatta-perumbadi-sahasradana-perumakkal.

SII - Vol XIX, No. 61

(A.R. No. 602 of 1920)

On the north wall of the same shrine

"......a gift of 12˝ kalanju of gold for burning a perpetual lamp before the image of Chandrasekhara-Perumal in the temple, by Panchavanmadevi the consort (araisi) of Araiyan Mahimalayan alias Parantaka-Muttaraiyan. The Manradikkalanai of the place received the amount and agreed to supply an ulakku of ghee daily for the purpose......."

SII - Vol 13, No. 288.

(A.R. No. 314 of 1904.)

Kudumiyamalai, Pudukkottai State, Melaikkoyil Temple.

The inscription registers a gift of 7 ˝ kalanju of gold for a perpetual lamp in the temple of Tirumulattanattu-Perumanadigal at Tirunilakkunram by Nangaiyar-Nangai Dayanidiyar, the wife of (the chief) Perumbidugu-Muttaraiyar on behalf (in memory ?) of Nangai Vikkiramakesariyar, thedaughter of Muttaraiyar Nambi Manatongalar. This is also evidently a record of Aditya I like No. 287 above.

261. 4930/1912. (Tamil.) On the same wall. Dated in the
reign of the Chola king Tribhuvanachakravartin Rajarajadeva (III).
Records in his seventeenth year, Kanni, su. di. 5, sale of land by a
certain Brahmadhiraya-Muttaraiyan to one of his dependants
(adiyar) named Srutiman Soran Sondan alias Ilarikesuradevan.

PERAMBALUR TALUK 1545

at Vada-PadavGr by Srutiman Uran Nambi alias Vrramedavi
Peraiyan and Mallan Manavalan alias Korigadaraiyan, to the same
individual.

269. 5010/1912. (Tamil.) On the same wall. A record of
the Chola king Tribhuvanachakravartin Rajarajadeva (III), dated
in his seventeenth year, Karkataka, su. di. 3, Wednesday, Pusam
(== Wednesday, 2 1st July 1232). Records sale of land at Vada-
Padavur by Mallan Slyan alias Brahmadhiraya Muttaraiyan to the
same individual

No. 229.



(A. R. No. 318 of 1908.)



Kuruvitturai, Nilakkottai Taluk, Madurai District.



On the north wall of the Chitrarathavallabha-Perumal temple.



This order was issued when the king was seated in the sat Pandiyarajan in theAlagiyapandiayan hall in the palace at Solantaka-chaturvedimangalam in Paganurkurramand the 11th year quoted in the sixth line of the record was the year in which it wasissued. Siddhakutti-Madhavan alias Solamuttaraiyan, the kilan of Mangadu in Mangadu-nadu, a subdivision of Puliyur-kottam, a division of Tondaimandalam had endowed somelands to the temple of Tiruchchakrattalvar in the village in the 2nd year, apparently of thisking himself, but as a portion of them was not in the enjoyment of the temple as tax-freedevadana the king rectified this defect on a representation made by his officerKalingarajan. It is stated that the lands had been reconstituted into a new village called

Note: The foregoing will be reviewed frequently corrected where necessary, and added with additional informations with 'evidence' as and when they surface.




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