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Thread: The great Significance of Kodungallur of Kerala : Part - 2

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    The great Significance of Kodungallur in the history of Kerala and Tamil Nadu : Part - 2

    (10) The change of capital city from Karuvur to Vanji

    The Karuvur didnot last too long as the interior capital city of the Chera Country, possibly because of the geographical location of same. When we have a close look at the present Karuvapadna - north of Kodungallur, we note many water inroads in the region of the main city. This was possibly caused by the flooding of Karuvur “harbour front region by the waters of Aan Porunai River (Pullut River) during monsoon times, and having more water inroads geographically and making the city more vulnerable, found it necessary for the Cheras to shift their capital city to a more habitable land area on the left side of the Aan Porunai River, but keeping in the close proximity to their seaport city the Musiri, and this region was named as the Vanji Nagar which became the subsequent interior capital city of the Cheras possibly from the first century B.C.

    Karuvur and Vanji were not the exactly the same location, but a little distant apart and both being at different locations on either side of the Aan Porunai river (Pullut river) as noted from Ahanaanooru and Silappathikaram.

    However the distance being not too far apart from each other made the poets who composed the Tamil Nihandus (ancient Tamil dictionaries) namely the Chudamani Nihandu, Pingala Nihandu etc to mention in their compositions that Karuvur and Vanji are the same.

    The Tamil Literary Work Puraranaannoru states the Vanji Nagar city walls was adjacent to the river Aan Porunai (present Pullut river) the waves of which were striking this wall. The Tamil works such Sirrupaanaartrupadai, Silapathikaaram, Puranaanooru confirms the river Aan Porunai was flowing sourrounding the side of Vanji Nagar. The Cheras were also known as Kuda Naadaan and Vanjikomaan and Kothai kings.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "........Selvak Kadungo Vaaliyaathan
    ennaath thevvar uyarkudai paniththu ivan
    viduvar maatho nedithe ni.......
    pul elai Vanji pura mathil alaikkum
    kal en Porunai malinum aangkan
    pal uur sutriya kalani
    ellam vilaiyum nellinum palave....."

    Puranaanooru - verse 387

    ".....Kuda naadan Vanjikkomaan......"

    Muththolayiram - Verse – 23

    "......oliru vel Kothai oambi kaakum
    Vanji anna en vala nagar vilanga...."

    Ahanaanooru - Verse 263

    ".....kuda pulam kavalar marumaan onnaar
    vada pula imayaththu vaangu vit poriththa
    veluvu ural thinikoal iyat ther Kuttuvan
    varu punal vayil Vanjiyum varithe......"

    Sirupaanaatrupadai

    ".......vaali varu punal neer Aan Porunai sool
    tharum Vanjiyar komaan than thol kulame...."

    Silappathikarem – Vaalthukaathai – 14

    "....than Porunai punal paayum
    vin poru pukal viral Vanji...."

    Puranaanooru - Verse 11

    ".....than Aan Porunai ven manal chithaiya
    aram sei avvai...."

    Puranaanooru - Verse 36

    " ......poova Vanji pon nagar puraththena......"

    Silappathikaaram - Kaatchchikkaathai, Line 148

    "......Imayam suttiya eama vitpori
    maan vinai nedun ther Vaanavan tholaiya
    vaada Vanji vaattum nin
    peedu elu noan thaan padung kaale....."

    Puranaanooru - Verse 39


    (11) The first Kerala (Chera) Tamil empire of the first century A.D.

    The greatest among the Kerala (Chera) kings throughout the Tamil and Malayalam periods of the Kerala History were the Tamil Chera kings Imayavaramban Nedun Cheralaathan and his son Cheran Chenguttuvan.

    Imayavaramban Nedun Cheralaathan was the Chera king who ruled from Vanji Nager (Kodungallur) during the period B.C.03 - A.D.55. He was the son of the Chera king Uthiyan Cheralathan and Queen Nallini daughter of the Kerala chieften Veliyan Venmaal, and ruled for 58 years

    He became very powerful and went on a expedition towards the Central and Northern India, defeated and won over many Aryan kings and carved the Chera royal emblem the “bow” on the Himalayan mountain. He also turned his attention on the Indo-Greek (Yavanar) king ruling in the East Punjab - a region now covered within the present west India, captured the king and on he agreeing to pay tributes handed over his kingdom back to him, and returned back to his kingdom with tributes of diamonds and other valuables from this king.

    However he maintained good relations with the other Tamil kingdoms of South India of that period, namely that of Cholas and Pandiyas. His authority extended over many kingdoms between the Himalayas up to Kanyakumari down south and thus he could be classified as the emperor of the first Kerala (Chera) empire.

    Imayavaramban Nedun Cheralathan was succeeded by his able son Cheran Chenguttuvan on the Chera throne, inheriting the vast empire from his father and ruled from Vanji Nagar, during the period A.D.55 -110. He was the son of the Chera king Nedun Cheralathan and Queen Manakkilli the daughter of the Chola king Nedumudikkilli ruling Chola Nadu from Kaviripoompattinam (Poompuhar).

    Cheran Chenguttuvan in his battle with Kongu Nadu was assisted by the forces of Cholas and Pandiyas. He ruled Chera Nadu for 55 years. He had a younger brother who abdicated being the Chera prince, and became a Jain Monk and lived in Kunavaayil Kottam the temple at the eastern entrance of the Vanji Nagar (Kodungallur). He was known as the "Ilango Adihal", who composed the greatest Kerala (Chera) Tamil Epic known as "Silappathikaaram".

    Cheran Chenguttuvan with the death of his father Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan in A.D.110 set out on an expedition towards North India with his mother "Natsonai" the daughter of the Chola king Manakkilli, to enable her perform the religious rights to her late husband and have a holy bath at the river Ganges. On his way to North India he had to meet the stiff resistance from some of the North Indian kings before he reached the Ganges river, eventhough his father defeated these kings earlier and exacted tributes from them. Cheran Chenguttuvan again defeated these kings namely the Konkans, Kalingas, Karnatakas, Bangalas, Gangas, the Katiyas and the Aryans of the North who obstructed his Gangetic expedition towards north, and accomplished the religious rights of his father at shores of the river Ganges and returned to Chera Nadu.

    Years later after this expedition Cheran Chenguttuvan on his tour of the hilly regions of the east Chera country (in the present Idukki district), came to know from the villagers of this region of the greatness of Goddess Kannahi (Paththini) who reached her eternity on a hill in this region, very recently during the period of his reign. The king Cheran Chenguttuvan on the advices of his Queen Koperumthevi decided to build a temple in honour of the Goddess Kannahi at Neduverl Kuntram where she reached her eternity.

    It was decided that the stone for carving the image of Kannaki for this temple should not be taken from Pothikai Hills on the boarders of Chera Nadu, and for a great Chera emperor it was more fitting for a king of his valour and of great pride to bring same from Himalayas travelling all the way towards the north of India. Accordingly all the Aryan kings in the north who were earlier subdued by the Chera Emperor Imayavaramban Nedun Cheralaathan were informed of Cheran Senguttuvan’s trip to Himalayas with his forces to execute same.

    He also informed his ally the king Sathakarni of the Sathavahana dynasty known in Tamil as Nootruvar Kannar having the same meaning to have a large fleet of boats to be made and kept ready for his forces to cross the river Ganges and reach Himalayas to cutout the stone suited to carve the statue of Kannahi to be installed at the temple to be built by him at the Vanji Nagar.

    The forces left Vanji Nagar and marched to north of India through Nilagiri, and reached the southern shores of the river Gangai river where they were greeted by his ally in the north namely the Nootruvar Kannar who is identified with Sathakarni king of the Sathavahana dynasty of this period. From here they crossed the Gangai river in special boats made and kept ready by his ally by a pre-arrangement.

    On they reaching the northern sides of the Gangai river, the north Indian kings namely the Kanakan and Visayan along with other northern kings namely Uththaran, Visiththaran, Uruththiran, Phairavan, Siththiran, Singhan, Thanuththiran, Sivedan jointly confronted confronted Cheran Chenguttuvan's forces. Cheran Chenguttuvan and his forces valiantly fought with these joint forces of North Indian kings defeated them and took the king Kankar and Visayar as their captives.

    Thereafter he instructed his chief of his forces Villavan Kothai to proceed to Himalayas and to cut out the stone from this mountain that was required to carve out the statue of "Kannahi' considered now as a goddess.

    This stone slab was made to be carried also by the captive kings Kanakan and Visayan was ceremoniously bathed in the Gangai river and reached the southern shore of this river. He and his retinue resided for some days in this region where palace, manimandapams, performance stage, gardens, ponds, stage for receiving tributaries, and private quarters were built by his other friendly Aryan king possibly the Nootruvar Kannar who beforehand informed of his Himalayan expedition.

    While he was staying here he decorated the valient soldiers of his forces who performed well in his battle with the north Indian kings, and provided them with "victory flowers" made of gold. Therafter he ordered his men Neelan and others to take the captive kings Kanakan and Visayan and show them to the two other Tamil kings namely the Pandiya and Chola to exibit his war victory. He thereafter returned with his forces to his capital Vanji Nagar where his queen Koperumthevi was awaiting his arrival.

    The greatness of these two kings namely the father and the son can be seen from the references in the great Tamil Literary Works of the contemperary period (first & second centuries A.D.) namely the Ahanaanooru, Silappathikaarem and Pathitruppatthu.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    Imayavramban NedunCheralathan:

    "Manniya perum puhal maruvil vaaimoli
    innisai murasin Uthiyan Cherarkku
    Veliyan vernmarn Nallini eendra mahan
    amai varal aruvi Imayam vitpori
    imil kadal velith thamilakam vilanga
    than koan neeri ith thahai saal sirappodu
    per esai marabin Ariyar vankki
    nayanil vansol Yavanar piniththu
    neithalai peithu kai pitkolee
    aru vilai nan kalam vayiramodu kondu
    peruviran moothur thanthu pirarkku uthavi
    amaiyar theiththa vanangu kudai nontraan"

    Pathitruppatthu - Irrandaam Paththu - Pathikam- line 1-12

    “…….Ariyar thuvantriya perisai imayam
    thennang Kumariyodu aayidai
    manmeek koorunar marantha pakkadanthe……”

    Pathitruppatthu - Irrandaam Paththu - line 23-25

    “…..iru munthneer thuruththiyul
    muraniyor thalai sentru kadambu muthal thadintha
    kadunj chinam munpin Nedun Cheralathan…..”

    Pathitruppatthu - Irrandaam Paththu - 19 line 2-5

    “……Ariyar alara thaakki perisai thontru muthir vadavarai
    vanangu vit poriththu venchina ventharai piniththon…..”

    Ahanaanooru – verse 396

    “……Munneer oatti kadambu erinthu Imayaththu munnoar
    marula vanangu vit poriththu…..”

    Ahanaanooru – verse 127

    “……Cheralathan maal kadal oatti kadambu arutthu iyattriya
    pan amai murasin kan athirnh anna…...”

    Ahanaanooru – verse 347

    “……valam padu murasin Cheralathan
    munneer oatti kadambu aruththu Imayaththu
    munoar marula vanangu vil poriththu
    nal nagar Maranthai muttraththu onnaar
    pani thirai thantha paadu saal nankalam
    pon sei paavai vayiramodu aambal
    ontruvaai niraiya kuvai yi antru avan
    nilam thinath thurantha nithiyaththu anna….”

    “……kallaa malavar vil idam thali yi
    varunar paarkkum veru varu kavalai
    moli peyar theeththar aayinum
    palitheer kaathalar sentra naade…..”

    Ahanaanooru – verse 127

    "van sol Yavanar vala naadu van perum kal
    then Kumari aanda seru Vil, Kayal, puliyan
    manpathai kaakkum koman, mannan thiram paadi"

    Silappathikaram - by Ilango Adigal, Vanji Kandam,
    Vaalththu Kaathai, verse 25


    "Kumariyodu vada Imayaththu oru moli vaiththu
    ulaku aanda Cheralatharkku...."

    Silappathikaram - by Ilango Adigal, Vanji Kandam,
    Vaalththu Kaathai, verse 1


    “Emnaattu aang kan Imayavarambanin
    Nal naal seitha naalani velviyil vantheeka entru vanangi veanda”

    Silappathikaram - by Ilango Adigal


    Cheran Shenguttuvan

    “…Vadavar utkum vaalthoi velkodi
    Kudavar Komaan Neduncheralaathatku
    Cholan Manakkilli eentra mahan
    Kadavul Paththini Katkol vendi
    Kaana vil kaanam kanaiyin pohi
    Arya annalai veetip perisai
    Inpal aruvi gangai manni
    ………”

    “….Kadat pirakoattiya Chenguttuvan…..”

    Pathitruppatthu - iynthaam Paththu - Pathikam- line 1-10 & 22

    “…….Kadavul nilaya kal oangu neduvarai
    Vada thisai ellai imayamaaha
    Thennam kumariyodu ayidai arasar
    Murasudai perum samam thjathaiya aarpu ela
    Sol pala naattai thol kavin aliththa
    Poraadu thaanai polanthaar Kuttuva…….”

    Pathitruppatthu - iynthaam Paththu - Pathikam- 43 line 6-11

    “……ma neer Kadambu erinthu Imayaththu
    Vaanaver marula malai vil pottiya
    Vaanavar thontral, vai vaal Kothai……

    Silappathikaram - by Ilango Adigal, Vanji kaandam, Kaatchi Kaathai, line 1-3

    “……numpol venthar numodu ihali
    Kongar seng kalaththu koduvari kayal kodi
    Pahai purathu thanthanar ayinum aangu avai
    Thisaimuha velaththin seviyaham pukkana
    Konganar, Kalingar, kodum Karunadar,
    Bangalar, Kangar, palvel Kattiyar
    vada Ariyarodu van thamil mayakkaththu un
    kadamalai vettam en kanpulam piriyaathu
    Gangai peryattru kadumpunal niththam
    em komahalai aattiya an naal
    Ariya mannar eer-iynooruvarkku
    Oru nee ahiya seru vemkolam
    Kan viliththu kandathu kadungkan kootram
    Imil kadal veliyai Thamilnaadu aakkiya
    Ithu nee karuthinai ayin eatpavar
    Muthneer ukahin muluvathum illai
    Vadathisai marungin mannarkku ellaam
    Then Thamil naathu seluvil Kayal, Puli,
    Manthalai eatrtra varaiha eengu ena…..”

    Silappathikaram - by Ilango Adigal, Vanji kaandam, Kaatchi Kaathai, line 151-172

    “…..vil thalai konda viyanper imayaththu oar
    kal kondu peyarum em kavalan aathalin
    vada thisai marungin mannar ellaam
    edu thirai kodu vanthu ethireer aayin
    kadal kadambu erintha kadum poar vaarththaiyum
    vidar chilai poriththa viyan peru vaarththaiyum
    keatu vaalumin keleer aayin
    thoal thunai thurakkum thuravodu vaalumin…….”

    Silappathikaram - by Ilango Adigal, Vanji kaandam, Kaatchi Kaathai, line 183-190

    “….vansol yavanar vala nadu aandu
    ponpadu neduvarai puhunthon ayinum….”

    Silappathikaram - by Ilango Adigal, Vanji kaandam, Kaatchi Kaathai, line 141-142

    “selavam nillaathu enpathai velpoar
    than Thamil ehalnththa Ariya mannarin
    kandanai allayo kaval venthe….”

    Silappathikaram - by Ilango Adigal, Vanji kaandam, Kaatchi Kaathai, line 152-55

    “………Ariya arasarai arum sirai neekki……

    Silappathikaram - by Ilango Adigal, Vanji kaandam, Nadukal Kaathai, line 195

    "Kumariyodu vada Imayaththu oru moli vaiththu
    ulaku aanda Cheralatharkku thihal oli
    gnayittru Cholan mahal eendra mayinthan
    Kongar sengkalam verttu
    Gangai peryartru karai pohiya
    Chenguttuvan…."

    Silappathikaram - by Ilango Adigal, Vanji Kandam,
    Vaalththu Kaathai, verse 1


    (12) The great Epic story of Kannahi, Kovalan, Mathavi and Manimekalai

    The other great significance of Vanji Nagar (Kodungallur),, is that the three principal characters among the four in the great 'epic story' of Silappathikarem, namely Kannahi, Mathavi, and Manimekalai whose native place was the Chola country (which formerly covered the central, and east of central regions of the present day Tamil Nadu), after the great tragedy that befell them in the Pandiyan country (which formerly covered the southern regions of the present day Tamil Nadu), finally found refuge and solace in the Kerala (Chera) country of this period.

    The story goes to relate that two leading rich Tamil Merchants of Kaviripoompattinam (Poompuhar) the capital city of the then Chola country had their son and daughter namely Kovalan & Kannahi wedded to each other. Some months after their wedding, the annual sea festival was celeberated in the Chola capital at Kaviripoompattinam known as “Indra Vila”. The entire city went gay during this period rejoicing this festival with music, dance and other cultural activities taking place, with the sea bathing by many in the adjoining sea and worship at the temples of various religious sects namely the Saivite, Vaishnavite, Vedic, and in the Bhuddhist and Jain Pallis, celeberating the festival known as “Indra Vila” in the name of the rain God Indra.

    In this festival the young Dancer Mathavi performed her first dance recital “Arangetram” on stage which was witnessed by the Chola king Killivalavan and many others including Kovalan who went to this festival leaving Kannahi at his home. The young and beautiful Maathavi and her dances captured the mind of young Kovalan, who met Mathavi after the dance and became friendly with her. This finally ended up with both living together happily over months completely forgetting about wife Kannahi, not even thinking of going and seeing her from the time he left home for the Indira Vila.

    Maathavi belonged to the class of women of the oldest profession. This gradually paved way for the rapid drain of Kovalan’s financial resources and coming to a beggerly state which ended up with much uneasiness among Kovalan and Maathavi. This finally ended up in their breakaway and Kovalan returning back to his lawfully wedded wife Kannahi who accepted him whole heartedly and with warmth inspite of his misdoings to her. However some time later Mathavi became pregnant to Kovalan and delivered a baby girl who was named as Manimekalai.

    Kovalan thereafter lived with Kannahi happily for some time, but with their much diminished financial resources Kannahi offered her Gold Anklets for him to sell and meet their financial requirements. Kovalan thought of going to Mathurai the capital of the Pandiyan kingdom to find good prices for the Gold Anklets of Kannahi. There he went and showed the Anklets to some renowned Goldsmiths to obtain the best prices for same. But one of them happened to be the Goldsmith of the royal houseold of the king. He was aware that the Golden Anklets of the Pandiyan queen have been robbed, and the palace authorities still did not know as to who robbed it from the Royal Household.

    The Goldsmith on seeing the Anklets which was shown to him by Kovalan which looked very similer to the lost Anklets of the Pandiyan queen went and reported same to the king that the person who was suspected of having robbed the queens Anklets was at his household having come to him to sell same. The Pandiyan king Neduncheliyan who ruled his country honestly and faithfully to the rule of law made a hasty decision and without having the Anklets brought by Kovalan properly checked, taking to grant what the Goldsmith said orderd him to be be-headed. Accordingly Kovalan was beheaded by the warriors of the Pandiyan forces.

    This news reached Kannahi who immediately pursued to the Pandiyan Court and demanded she be allowed tro see the Pandiyan king immediately. The message was passed to the Pandiyan king who gave permission for her audience with the king. Kannahi wailed out and cried and accused the Pandiyan king of having beheaded her husband who was not a thief but an honest person, and claimed that in fact the Anklets was her own and demanded their identification of same with the Queens Anklets. To this the king said the Queen’s Anklets were studded with Rubies. Kannahi immediately replied and accused the king that he what he has done was wrong and his rule of law have defaulted. Kannaki claimed her Anklets were studded with pearls, and she dashed the other Anklet in her possession on the floor and the pearls from within shattered all over the floor.

    The king Pandiyan Neduncheliyan was stunned that his rule of law has defaulted due to he having not checked on same prior to ordering Kovalan to be beheaded, and was greatly distressed over what had happened. This untold grievance lead to his sudden collapse on the throne and to his death. The queen too with much greivance over what happened at the hand of the king unable to bear same collapsed and died therafter.

    However Kannahi became so furious over the great injustice done to her husband cursed vehemently the Pandiyan king and his city of Mathurai to be burnt, and very miraculously the king’s palace caught fire which speard throughout the city of Mathurai with much destruction. This tragedy happened on the Amavasai day being a Friday of the Tamil month of Aadi (second half of July) of that year. After all these destructive happenings Kannahi left Mathurai (in the present south Tamil Nadu) and moved towards the Chera Nadu (Kerala) and reached a hillock named Neduverlkuntram. She spent some time here, and she died in much grievance over her great loss on the fourteenth day (being Pournami day- in the first half of August) since the burning of Mathurai , and her death was witnessed by the jungle tribesman who claimed to have seen her going to the heaven.

    During this period in Kaviripoompattinam the Chola seaport capital a sea erosion took place with many parts of this seaport capital city of Cholas going under sea. This made many from this capital to shift to other regions. With the happenings in Mathurai to Kovalan, his mother succumbed to death in deep grief. The Kovalan’s father, Maathavi and Manimehalai too left Kaviripoompattinam and moved to the Vanji Nagar in Chera Nadu where they settled down seeking solace.

    Refer:

    Silappathikarem - by Ilango Adihal - U.V. Saminatha Iyer Edition
    Sillappathikarem - by Ilango Adihal - Puliyoor Kesikan Edition
    Sillappathikarem - by Ilangi Adihal - S.V.Subramanian Edition


    ".........Mathurai maa theiva maa Paththinikku
    vithimurai solli alal veedu kondapin
    karuththuru kanavart kandapin allathu
    iruththalum illen nittralum illen
    Kotravai vaayit potrodi thaharththu
    keel thisai vaayit kanavanodu pukunthen
    met thisai vaayil variyen peyarkena
    iravum pakalum mayanginan kaiyattru
    uravu neer Vaiyai oru karai kondu angu
    avala ennaal misaivai theralit
    kadal vayiru kiliththu malai nenju pilanthaangu
    avunarai kadantha sudarilai Neduvel
    Neduverl Kuntram adivai theri........"

    Silappathikarem - by Ilango Adihal, chapter - Katturai Kaathai - U.V. Saminatha Iyer Edition


    There are further reference which confirms this temple is reached on a Kuntram (hillock) by travelling upward along the course of Vaigai river and its branch Suruli river.

    "......Iyai aval mahalodum 'Vaiyai yoru valikkondu maamalai meemisai yeri komahal than koyil pukku nangaikku sirappu ayarntha Chenguttuvartkku' thiram uraippaar man......"
    Silappathikarem - by Ilango Adihal, chapter - Vaalththu kaathai - U.V. Saminatha Iyer Edition


    Note:


    The Neduverlkunram in Chera Nadu has not been identified postively. This region is referred to in Silappathikaaram as NeduVel Neduverl Kuntram, which means the Kuntram (hillock} of Neduverl (God Murugan) with Neduvel (long Vel). It further states that to reach this place Kannaki travelled eastwards along the (path on the) side of Vaikai River day and night. Hence it is clear Neduverl Kuntram cannot be the Thirupparankuntram a Muruga Thalam 6 km south of Mathurai, and the Vaikai River doesnot pass adjacent to this Thalam.

    Further from Silapathikaaram we come to know that the Neduverl Kuntram had been in the Chera country. Hence the possible route taken by Kannaki would have been a path adjacent to the Vaikai river and possibly then continued along Suruli river a branch of Vagai river to reach the Chera Nadu (Kerala) at Kumily in Idukki district of Kerala.

    Kannaki would have travelled further from Kumily to the interior of Kerala should the Neduverl Kuntram was elsewhere. But we note presently there is a Kannaki temple at Vannathiparai a hillock (Kuntram) 7 km from Kumily. Could this Kuntram earlier been a sacred Kuntram to God Muruga still to be confirmed. In all probability Kannaki could not have travelled too far from Mathurai especilly when she was terribly greived and wiered state of mind over the unfortunate happening, that too within fourteen days.

    There is an oral tradition that this is the Kuntram where Kannaki went to heaven (died), with Kovalan in a 'vanavoorthi' (an aero-vehicle). The truth of the tradition that the Kumily region would have been the site where Kannaki died could be acertained by the fact from Silappathikaaram that, Cheran Chenguttuvan left Vanji Nagar (Kodungallur) and went on land along the side of Periyar river to enjoy the scenes of hilly districts of Cheranadu. Along this tract the region which falls well with the geographic description in Silapathikaaram is the Idukki district, where the Kumily region is situated.


    (13) The construction and ceremonial opening of first Kannaki (Pattini) temple at Neduverlkuntram Kerala

    The Chera king of this period the Cheran Senguttuvan while seated in his throne one day at his palace in Vanji Nagar in the presence of his younger brother a Chera Prince turned Jain Monk known as Ilango Adihal, the Tamil Poet Saatanaar who was with them and who have already heard of the full story of the Kovalan and Kannahi’s life in the Chola country, and how they met the great tragedy in Pandiyan country, and finally Kannahi met her death in the Chera Nadu, was related by him to them.

    All three felt that Kannahi to be a virtuous lady who was now known also as Pattini who has performed all these miracles, has to be of very godly nature and fit to be deified, and Cheran Senguttuvan with others decided to build a temple to Kannahi in Vanji Nagar, as she finally came and met her death in Chera Nadu.

    It was decided that the stone for carving the image of Kannahi for this temple should not be taken from Pothihai Hills on the boarders of Chera Nadu, but for a great Chera emperor felt that for a king of his valour it is more fitting and is of great pride to bring same from Himalayas travelling all the way towards north of India. Accordingly all the Aryan kings in the north who were earlier subdued by the Chera Emperor Imayavaraban Nedun Cheralathan were informed of Cheran Senguttuvan’s trip to Himalayas with his forces to execute same.

    He also informed his ally the king Sathakarni of the Sathavahana dynasty known in Tamil as Nootruvar Kannar having the same meaning to have a large fleet of boats to be made and kept ready for his forces to cross the river Ganges and reach Himalayas to cutout the stone suited to carve the statue of Kannahi to be installed at the temple to be built by him at the Vanji Nagar.

    The forces left Vanji Nagar and marched to north of India through Nilagiri, and reached the southern shores of the river Gangai river where they were greeted by his ally in the north namely the Nootruvar Kannar who is identified with Sathakarni king of the Sathavahana dynasty of this period. From here they crossed the Gangai river in special boats made and kept ready by his ally by a pre-arrangement.

    On they reaching the northern sides of the Gangai river, the north Indian kings namely the Kanakan and Visayan along with other northern kings namely Uththaran, Visiththaran, Uruththiran, Phairavan, Siththiran, Singhan, Thanuththiran, Sivedan jointly confronted confronted Cheran Chenguttuvan's forces. Cheran Chenguttuvan and his forces valiantly fought with these joint forces of North Indian kings defeated them and took the king Kankar and Visayar as their captives.

    Thereafter he instructed his chief of his forces Villavan Kothai to proceed to Himalayas and to cut out the stone from this mountain that was required to carve out the statue of "Kannahi' considered now as a goddess.

    This stone slab was made to be carried also by the captive kings Kanakan and Visayan was cerimoniously bathed in the Gangai river and reached the southern shore of this river. He and his retinue resided for some days in this region where palace, manimandapams, performance stage, gardens, ponds, stage for receiving tributaries, and private quarters were built by his other friendly Aryan king possibly the Nootruvar Kannar who beforehand informed of his Himalayan expedition.

    While he was staying here he decorated the valient soldiers of his forces who performed well in his battle with the north Indian kings, and provided them with "victory flowers" made of gold. Therafter he ordered his men Neelan and others to take the captive kings Kanakan and Visayan and show them to the two other Tamil kings namely the Pandiya and Chola to exibit his war victory. He thereafter returned with his forces to his capital Vanji Nagar where his queen Koperumthevi was awaiting his arrival.

    Thereafter the work on the Kannahi statue commenced with by the Artisons who were well versed in Sitpa Noolkal with the assistance of priest, astrologer performing religious ceremonies and advicing on the good time to start the sculptural work on the Kannahi statue with a temple to house same known as ''Paththini Koattam".

    On completion the king Cheran Chenguttuvan instructed the Kannahi statue was consecrated adorned with jewellery made by competant Artisons with Poosai valipaadukal done with flowers, with scented fumes and velvi and festival rituals and ceremonies to be performed daily to grace the Goddess, and he in his worship prayed with his circumbulation the goddess statue three time.

    At this ceremony the Aryan kings who were held in tempororay captivity and the kings on long term captivity in jails were released on this occasion, the Kongar king of Kudahu, kings of Malawa, the king Kayavaahu (Gajabahu - 1) of ocean surrounded Ilangai (Sri Lanka) all were present.

    After consecration ceremonies Cheran Chenguttuvan invited these kings also to be present at the Velvi ceremonies to be held on the birthday of his father Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan and preyed for Goddess Kannahi's blessing on this occasion.

    After these ceremonies all king returned to their own countries.

    Refer:

    Silappathikarem - by Ilango Adihal - U.V. Saminatha Iyer Edition
    Sillappathikarem - by Ilango Adihal - Puliyoor Kesikan Edition
    Sillappathikarem - by Ilangi Adihal - S.V.Subramanian Edition


    Note:

    Nootruvar = hundred, and Kannar = Karnar - Likewise Satha = one hundred and Karni = Kannar. Hence Nootruvar Kannar king is no other than the Satharkani of Sathavaakana dynasty of Kalinga region of that time.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Mathurai moothoor maa nagar
    kedu ura kothi alal cheettram kongaiyin vilaiththu
    nan naadanainthu nalir chinai vengai
    ponnani puthu nilart porunthiya Nangaiyai
    arakkalaththu anththanar aasaan pernghani
    sirappudai kammiyar thamodum chentru
    meloar vilaiyum nooneri maakkal
    paalpera vahutha Paththini Koattaththu
    Imayavar uraiyum Imaiyachchevarai
    Simaya senni theivam parasi
    kaivinai muttriya Theiva Padimaththu
    viththakar iyatriya vilangiya kolaththu
    mutru elai nankalam muluvathum pootti
    pooppali seithu kaappuk kadai nirutthi
    Velviyum Vilaavum naadorum vahuththu
    Kadavul Mangalam seika ena eavinan
    vadathisai vanakkiya mannavre en......."

    Silappathikarem - by Ilango Adihal, chapter - Nadukat kaathai - U.V. Saminatha Iyer Edition

    ".........Mangala madanthai koataththu aangkann
    Chengkoattu uyar varai senuyar silambit
    pini muga nedung kat pidar thalai nirambiya
    ani kayam pala ula aang avai idaiyathu
    kadi pahai nunkalum kavirithal kurungalum
    idikalap panna illaithu uhu neerum
    undoar sunai athanul pukku aadinar
    pandaiya piraviya ahuvaraathalin........."

    Silappathikarem - by Ilango Adihal, chapter - Varamtharu kaathai - U.V. Saminatha Iyer Edition

    "......Kadavul seitha pinnaal Kannaki than koattam......"

    Silappathikarem - by Ilango Adihal, chapter - Vaalththu kaathai - U.V. Saminatha Iyer Edition


    From the above it is noted Kannaki Koyil was referred to as Kannaki Koattam, Paththni Koattam and as Mangala madanthai Koattam. The latter name is equivalent to Managala Devi temple (koyil).

    Today there is a granite stone temple complex known as "Mangaladevi temple" at the village Vannaaththiparai in Kumily in the Idukki State of Kerala bordering Tamil Nadu. It is said there are Inscriptions in it of 'Vatteluththu' writing and idols of Kannaki and others, but the temple is said to be in highly dilapidated condition "with no attention still from the Archaeological Survey of India in it's preservation, under whose purview it is presently kept".

    May be if proper study of the Inscriptions are made we could have "positive confirmations' whether this was the temple built by Cheran Chenguttuvan as held by traditions, which housed the statue of Kannaki carved from a stone slab brought in from Himalayas by this king.

    A Video and two Web Pages on Mangalathevi temple at Kumily in Kerala.


    http://www.metacafe.com/watch/239351...eelaearth_com/
    http://kerala.gov.in/kerala_callingaug/p38-39.pdf
    http://www.orientalthane.com/archaeo...2008_04_09.htm
    http://news.chennaionline.com/newsit...TEGORYNAME=CHN

    'Chengkoattu...' = Chengkuntram (Koadu = Kuntram = a hill), was situated closer to Neduverlkuntram near Kumily in the Idukki District of Kerala on the Kerala/Tamil Nadu border. This is confirmed by the reference in Silappathikaaram as follows.

    "....Mangala Madanthai Koattaththu 'aangu ann[-maiyil'] Chenkoattu uyar varai....."

    meaning: ".....the Managaladevi temple (at Neduverlkuntram also as per Silappathikaaram), "there closeby" the tall hill Chengkoadu...."

    Silappathikarem - by Ilango Adihal, chapter - Vaaththu kaathai - U.V. Saminatha Iyer Edition

    It should be noted the Chengkoadu referred above is not the Thiruchengkoadu situated on the east of present Erode, which is far out in north-west Tamil Nadu, and far out of the course of Vaikai river. Further the hillock village Vannaaththiparai at Kumily, could have been the Neduverlkuntram (where Kannaki met her death which was sacred to God Murugan (refered to as 'Neduvel NeduVerl' as per Silappathikaaram) at that time. It is here that we find the old ruins of Kannaki temple even today.

    The Poet Ilango Adihal has further confirmed same, 'as being interpreted by Kannaki herself' as follows in the Silappathikaaram.

    "......naan avanthan mahal 'Ven Velaan kuntril' vilaiyaattu yaan akalen....."

    Silappathikarem - by Ilango Adihal, chapter - Vaalththu kaathai - U.V. Saminatha Iyer Edition



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    Last edited by virarajendra; 15th October 2016 at 08:29 PM.

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    Excellent summary of relevant history; very well done!
    B.I. Sivamaalaa (Ms)

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