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Thread: The 1000th year of accession of the great Tamil Chola Emperor the Rajendra Chola - 1

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    Author: Virarajendra

    The 1000th year of accession (A.D.1014-2014) of the great Tamil Chola Emperor the Rajendra Chola - 1 on Chola throne - Part 4

    (Under Construction)

    Inscription if Rajathiraja Chola in Thiruvaiyar temple, Thanjavur district, Tamilnadu, India.
    South Indian Inscriptions - Vol v, No 520


    "......ayyar who took Gangai, Purvadesam and Kadarem....."

    Inscription of Virarajendra in front of the central shrine of Thiruttalisvara temple at Thirupputur, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu.
    Annual Report on Epigraphy (Madras) - 1908, 110


    ".......gifted by Ulagudaiyal queen of (one) who took Gangai, Kidarem and Purvadesam....."

    Inscription of Rajendra chola - 1 on the central shrine in Ammanathaswami temple at Seramadevi in Tinnevely district, Tamil Nadu.
    Annual Report on Ephigraphy - 1916, No 623


    ".......the Sembiyan captured Kadaarem with cold clear wavy roaring sea and kept the country under his rule......"

    Kalingaththu Parani - by Jeyamkondaar, edited by Puliyuur Kesikan, chapter 8, page 104.

    ".......with mace captured the river Ganga and Kadaarem, and lived in Gangapuri the glorious (king)......."

    Vikkramacholan Ulaa - by Ottakkoothther, line 34 to 36, Saiva Siddhantha Kalakam Publication

    ".......the Sembiyar king who captured the river Ganga and Kadaarem and occupied the throne.....'

    Kulothungancholan Ulaa - by Ottakkoothther, line 49 & 50, Saiva Siddhantha Kalakam publication

    ".......like the lion which attacked the elepant captured Kadaarem and Gangai and occupied the lion throne......"

    Sangara Rajendra Cholan Ulaa - edited by Ki. Vaa. Jeganaathan line 18 & 19, Saiva Siddhantha Kalakam publication

    ".......Saavakam erinthu Arumanam poruthu sinthath thakarththu Malayuurin uruva purisai thalli
    Koaham nekilnthu kulayumpadi Kadaarem kollum oru Cholan marukaa !......'

    Kulothungan Pillai Thamil - by Ottakkooththar, edited by T.S.Gangatharan, verse 92 Thanjavur Sarawathi Mahal Library publication


    ".......the Sembiyan captured Kadaarem with cold clear wavy roaring sea and kept the country under his rule......"

    Kalingaththu Parani - by Jeyamkondaar, edited by Puliyuur Kesikan, chapter 8, page 104.

    ".......with mace captured the river Ganga and Kadaarem, and lived in Gangapuri the glorious (king)......."

    Vikkramacholan Ulaa - by Ottakkoothther, line 34 to 36, Saiva Siddhantha Kalakam Publication

    ".......the Sembiyar king who captured the river Ganga and Kadaarem and occupied the throne.....'

    Kulothungancholan Ulaa - by Ottakkoothther, line 49 & 50, Saiva Siddhantha Kalakam publication

    ".......like the lion which attacked the elepant captured Kadaarem and Gangai and occupied the lion throne......"

    Sangara Rajendra Cholan Ulaa - edited by Ki. Vaa. Jeganaathan line 18 & 19, Saiva Siddhantha Kalakam publication

    ".......Saavakam erinthu Arumanam poruthu sinthath thakarththu Malayuurin uruva purisai thalli
    Koaham nekilnthu kulayumpadi Kadaarem kollum oru Cholan marukaa !......'

    Kulothungan Pillai Thamil - by Ottakkooththar, edited by T.S.Gangatharan, verse 92 Thanjavur Sarawathi Mahal Library publication


    Chola forces capture Ilangasokam of south Thailand

    From Kadarem the forces moved in the eastern direction heading to Ilangasokam (Lankasuka) approximately encompassing the present Songkhla, Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat states of present south Thailand. Chola forces captured Illangasokam and installed another prince as viceroy of this kingdom.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi.......kalangaa valvinai Ilangaasokamum.....maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    Chola forces capture Valaipanthur in north peninsular Malaysia

    From Ilangasokam the Chola forces further proceeded toward south-east direction to Valaipanthur (Valai Penjuru) in the present Kelantan state of Malaysia.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi.......vilaip panthurudai Valaipanthurum.....maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.



    Chola forces capture Maayirudingam in south Malaysia

    Chola forces continued with their expedition and moved towards the south of peninsular Malaysia and captured Maayirudingam surrounded by deep sea. They destroyed the blackstone (granite) fortress named Klenggiu (GlangGui in the corrupted form) of the great city Lenggui near the upper reaches of the Johor river,.

    When the king Chulin of Mayirudingam heard of the approach of the Chola forces under Raja Cholan he gathered all his forces and advanced forward and after ten miles encountered the Chola forces. The king Chulin who came on his elephant charged on Chola forces. The king Raja Cholan too fought from his elephant. However in the bitter battle king Chulin met his death by arrow from Raja Cholan. The forces of Chulin with his fall broke and fled. The Chola forces then entered the fortress of GlangGui sacked it and collected much treasures of this kingdom.

    Rajendra Chola -1's grandson was offered the daughter Puteri Onangki (Onang Kiu) of the king Chulin of Maayirudingam whom he married. Subsequently this unit of forces returned to Kadarem by sea to join the other two units of the Chola forces.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi.......aal kadal ahal sool Maa-Yirudingamum.....maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    Conquer of Mayirudingam








    Discussion

    From the Rajendra Chola's Meikeerththi refers as aal kadal ahal sool Maa-Yirudingamum meaning great Maayirudingam surrounded by deep wide sea. Further the 16th century Malay historical Chronicle states Rajendra Cholas forces "....when the men of Ganga Nagara (capital of city of Kadaarem covering the present Kedah and Perak states) saw that their Raja was dead they broke and fled. After the fall of Ganga Nagara Raja Shulan went forward again until in due course he reached the frontier of Lenggui.....". Hence it is clear after conquer of Kadarem kingdom, Chola Forces moved southward and attacked the "great kingdom" of Yirudingam which is undoubtedly the present Johor State which is surrounded on all three sides by deep wide sea.

    Chola forces capture Thalai-Thakkolam on the west of south Thailand

    The third unit of Chola forces reached Thalai-Thakkolam (Takua-pa) approximately covering the present Krabi, Phangnga and Surat Thani states of upper south Thailand.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi.......kalai thakkoar pukalth Thalai-Thakkolamum.....maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.
    [/color]

    Chola forces capture Ma-Thamaling on the east of south Thailand

    Then they headed towards the east Ma-Thamaling (Tambaralinga) approximately covering the present Nakhon Sri Thamarat and Phatthalung states of south Thailand. The Chola fores moved back to Kadarem which was joined by the fleet that returned from the Sumatran expedition.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi....... theethamar valvinai Maa-Thamaalingamum.......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    The Cambodian King Suriyavarman - 1 (A.D.1010-1050) requests for assistance from Chola Forces to win over his enemies

    After the Chola forces completed their war expedition to Indonesia, Malaysia and South Thailand the Cambodian king Suriyavarman - 1 who was at war seeked the assistance of the Chola forces to win over his enemy. This request was ceded by the Chola forces who sent a joint expedition with the Cambodian forces which ended in a great victory to the Cambodian King. He in recognition of the great assistance provided at war by the Chola's forces gave his War Chariot with which he won over his enemies as his present to Rajendra Chola - 1.

    With this good Chola-Khamer relationship the Saivite Priests, Traders and Stone Sculpturers from Chola country gradually settled in the region of Angkor the capital city of the Khamer emperer Suriyavarman - 1. During this period an old Siva Temple at 'Banteay Srei' 30 Km from the Angkor Wat temple in Cambodia was 'expanded and and new sections were added to an existing Siva temple' evidently by the Chola forces and re-dedicated to God Siva, with the new name "Thiribuvanamahadeva Temple" after Rajendra Chola's own mother's name the "Thiribhuvanamahadevi".

    In this temple in it's second enclosure, on the Gopura over main entrance we see an image of Nadarajah represented with eight hands but not in the same style as the Nadarajah images in the Tamil Nadu with left leg lifted and with four hands. In the lower panel beneath the Nadarajah image on its right side we see an image of a Drummer playing the drums to the beat of the Dance of God Siva depicted as Nadarajah, and on the left we see an image "visibly and positively confirmed" as that of the Kaaraikaal Ammaiyar of the Chola Country being one of the 63 - Tamil Saiva Saints of Tamil Nadu. This Panel undoubtedly was carved by a Tamil Sculpturer apparently from Chola country in Tamil Nadu.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    ".....The Kamboja king aspiring for his (Rajendra's) friendship (and) in order to save his own fortunes sent him a triumphant Chariot, with which he had conquered the armies of the enemy kings in the battles......."
    Karandai Tamil Sangam Plates of Rajendra Chola - 1, Memoirs of the Archaeological Series of India, No 70 - translated version of the Sanskrit portion of the plates by K.G.Krishnan


    "......the Kamboja king who conquered his enemies with the help of Rajendra, gifted to him his War Chariot with which he won many battles......"
    Karandai Tamil Sangam Plates of Rajendra Chola - 1, Tamil Polil Magazine Vol.....,page 130 - tanslated version of the Sanskrit portion of the plates by Sadasiva Pandaaraththaar


    The Image of the Stone Panel at 'Banteay Srei' Siva Temple in Angkor, Cambodia, with the images of Nadarajah & Kaaraikkaal Ammaiyar can be reached and viewed on the following URL. (Enlarge this Image on your Computer to see the image of Kaaraikaal Ammaiyaar clearly with her ghostly Face and lean body with Ribs showing and holding a mango fruit in the right hand, an image of Kaaraikkaal Ammaiyaar comparable with the other images of her found in Tamil Nadu and in Polonnaruwa in Sri Lanka.)

    Stone Sculpture of Siva on the walls of "Thiribuvanamahadeva Temple" at Cambodia with Tamil Saiva Saint Kaaraikkaal Ammaiyaar image below same

    Stone Sculpture of Aadavallaan on the walls of Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple with Tamil Saiva Saint Kaaraikkaal Ammaiyaar image below same




    The Chola forces capture Ma-Pappaalam their return to Chola country

    The joint forces on their return to Chola country reached the country of Rammanadesa (known as Arumanam in Tamil) the present Pegu region in southern Miyanmar (former Burma), and captured it's sea-port city of Ma-Pappalam (the present Dagon or Rangoon) of Miyanmar. They captured the great seaport city of Ma-Pappalam and the interior capital city Sudammavathi (Thaton) with "protected fortress walls" of the Talaing (Mon) kingdom of Rammanadesa, and defeated it's ruling king Manuha. The Chola forces planted their "Jeyathambam" and returned to Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu the seaport city of Cholas. King Manuha of Rammanadesa submitted to the Rajendra Chola's forces in this war and agreed to pay tributes.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "......Alai kadal naduvul pala Kalam seluththi.......kaappuru nirai punal Maa-Pappaalamum.......maa perum thandaatkonda Ko Parakesaripanmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkku aandu....."
    Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    South Indian Inscription Vol 1, Inscription No: 66, page 98.


    (42) Aftermath of the fall of Sri Vijaya empire

    With the fall of Sri Vijaya which was an important centre of Buddhist learning in South-East Asia under the great Buddhist teacher Acharya Dharmakirti (alias Dharmapala) probably underwent disturbed conditions which curtailed the activities of the centre.

    His great deciple Dipankara Attisa who came to Sri Vijaya in A.D.1012 from North India to learn Buddhism under him, after twelve years of learning left to India in the year A.D 1025 not withstandng the troubled conditions that befell the country. The fate of the Acharya Dharmakirti (alias Dharmapala) and the monastry was unknown.

    It appears certain conquered teritories have been handed back to native kings who accepted the suzeranty of the Cholas and agreed to pay tributes. Thus all countries which were under the sway of the Sri Vijaya empire of South-East Asia came under the overlordship of the mighty Cola empire of Tamil Nadu, India.

    (43) Sri Vijaya trade with China controlled by Cholas

    At Sri Vijaya the ruling Chola viceroy of Rajendra with a view of renewing the trade relations between China and Sri Vijaya sent an embassy to China in the year A.D.1028. This embassy was shown unusual honours by the Chinese emperor Jen Chung (A.D.1023-1064) in recognition of the mighty fame of Rajendra Chola - 1.

    (44) Commemoration of Chola victory over Kaadarem and Sri Vijaya in Tamil Nadu

    To Cholas their conquer of Kadaarem was that which gave them the satisfaction of a great achievement inspite of their victory over many South-East Asian countries.

    Rajendra Chola - 1 after his astounding victory over Kadaarem (the Kedah region) of present Malaysia and it's annexation to his great Chola empire, assumed himself as "Rajendra Chola Kidaaratharaiyan" meaning the 'Rajendra Chola the king of Kidaarem' (Kadaarem).

    He further commemorating his great victory over Kadarem assumed the title as 'Kadaarem kondaan. A village known as Punjai near Mayilaaduthurai in Nagapattinam district, and another village near Thuraiyur in Thiruvarur district were named after this title as "Kadaarem kondaan".

    He to further commemorate this great event in the Chola history, also issued gold coins with his title 'Kadaarem kondaan' inscribed on them.

    The grandson of Rajendra Chola - 1 who lead the Kadaarem expediion successfully on behalf of him - the son of Rajendra Chola - 2 named Rajadhiraja was given the title 'Rajadhiraja Kadaaremkonda Cholan' meaning the Rajadhiraja Chola who conquered Kadaarem or in short the 'Kadaaremkonda Cholan'.

    In a later period two Immediate Executive Officers (Udankoottam) of the king Rajendra Chola - 2 were given the above titles in recognition of their services to him as Arattai Soran Kulamaanikkam alias Rajadhiraja Kadaarankonda Cholan Velan and another as Vasavayan Machchi alias Kidarankonda Chola Velan.

    He to commemorate this victory renamed a village at Pasalinadu in Manayirkottam - the present Perambakkam region in south Thiruvallur District of Tamil Nadu as 'Kadaaremkonda Cholapuram'. It was in the village Narasinghapuram of this region the then Mathurantaka Nallur Aalvar temple the present Narasimha Perumal temple exits today.

    The region of Thondaimaanaartruur in Jeyamkondacholamandalam the present Kalahasti of Andhara Pradesh there had been another village named as Kadaaremkonda Cholapuram.

    There had been yet another region named as Kidaaremkonda (Kadaaremkonda) Cholapuram in the former Thaanava Nadu, a region which had been at the boundry of present Keeramangalam in the Pudukkoattai region of Tamil Nadu.

    There had been a village named as Kidaaremkonda (Kadaaremkonda) Chola Nallur which has been a boundry of the former region of Aakkur Nadu of Jayamkonda Cholavala Nadu the present Mayavaram region of the Thanjavur Mawattam of Tamil Nadu.

    Also there had been a highway named as Kidaaremkonda (Kadaaremkonda) Chola Perumtheru at Vikkramacholapuram in the close proximity to the present Vikkrama Choliswarer temple in the Udaiyaar Paalayam in the Perambalur Maawattam of the Thiruvalluur district in Tamil Nadu.

    Further there had been a settlement of Vedic Priests at Naangur Nadu named Kadaaremkonda Chola Chathurvedi Mangalam at Mayiladuthurai region of the Nagapattinam district in Tamil Nadu.

    Rajendra Chola - 1 in recognition of the military services rendered by the Chola General Chola Brahmaraayer who lead one wing of the expedition to South-East Asia was decorated with the title Kadaaremkonda Chola Brahmaraayer after the war possibly in the year A.D.1025. Rajendra Chola - 1 towards the end of his rule in A.D.1044 before his death, to reward further his Senai Naayagam (Chief Military General) for his great military services provided during his period of rule gave him a new title as Rajendra Chola Brammaraayer, and gifted a kingdom within his own empire known as Thadigaivali (Thadikaipaadi) alias Vikkramachola mandalam the present Devanahalli and Hosakote regions in Karnataka State, as a life time endowment (Jivitham) to him. In the village Alur of this region a temple and a water tank was also built during this period.

    Rajendra Chola - 1 in recognition of the loyal service to him by one of his high officers named Muvenda Velaar belonging to his "udankoottam" (accompanying high Officers), gave a title with 'Kadaaremkonda Chola' prefixed to his own name as Kadaaremkonda Chola Muvenda Velaar

    There was a Chola Velaikkaara Chieftain by the name Sri Rajendra Cholan Kidaaratharaiyan (an Inscription at Ayyakulam at Naththam TamilNadu - Avanam 4, 1994, page 33

    Further to celebrate this victory a Siva temple was built at the village Karaivali Valliyur at Paduvurkottam the present Gudimallur of Walajapet in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu, and was named as 'Kadaaremkonda Choliswaramudaiya Naayanar Koyil' the present Bhumisvara temple.

    Cholas further to mark their triumph over Sri Vijaya built another Siva temple at Merkunadu a subdivision of Rajadhiraja valanadu, and named it as 'Vijayamkonda Choliswarem Udaiyar Koyil'. This temple was at the northern boundry of Merkunadu during which time there also existed in the central region of Merkunadu a temple named as Vaanavanmathevi Vinnakar Aalvar which is the present Kadambavaneswara temple at Erumbur in Cuddalore district (Kadalur mavattam) of Tamil Nadu.

    The above are confirmed by the following References:

    "Swasti Sri Rajendra Cholan Kidaaratharaiyan......"

    One name among the many Velaikkarer names found on a Rockstone in a paddy field at Ayyaakulam near Nattham at (former Annaa Mawattam)
    "Avanam" Journal - - January 1994 - Ithal 4 - Article 8, Ayyalulam Velakkara Kalvettukal by V.Vethachalam & S.Santhalingam


    Discussion:

    We note from the Inscriptions of the medieval Chola Kings that from time to time with their victory over certain kingdoms they assumed to themselves the titles expressing their authority over same. Initially we could see during Rajaraja Cholans time as Chola Pandiyan, Chola Keralan etc. Subsequently we note they called themselves as (also) the kings of these kingdoms with their own names prefixed such as Rajendra Cholan Keralan, Kulothunga Chola Kadambarajan also as Kullotunga Chola Kadambaaraiyan. Likewise when Kulothunga Chola too won over Kadaarem assumed the title Kulothunga Chola Kidaarathuaraiyan. This is definitly the title assumed by the king on his own victory over Kadaarem and this title was conferred as honarary titles to the very close and faithfull servent-warriors (Vellaikaarer forces) of the king (who even dared to give their life to the king) to be attached to their own names. We could clearly see this clearly in the Inscription of Rajadhirajadevar - 2 (Inscriptions in Pudukkottai State - Part 1, Inscription No: 139) which states the name of the Vellaikarer who was named as Kulothunga Chola Kidaaraththu Araiyan aana Sadirasan Irasan. Similerly another inscription od Rajadhirajadever - 2 states the name of another warrior as "in naattu Araiyan (Aa)na Rasan aana Kulothunga (Chola) (Ni)riyur Kidaraththariyanen kuduththa.... (Pinnagudi kalvettukal = Avanam Journal. Ithal 23, Article 13 b M. Kayaththridevi.

    On this basis it could be clearly understood that the tituler name the "Swasti Sri Rajendra Cholan Kidaaratharaiyan" of Rajendra Chola -1 assumed after his victory over Kadaarem (Kedah of Malaysia) was also given to his faithfull Velaikkara Warrior in recognition of his services to Rajendra Chola - 1.


    ".......Vikrama Cholapuraththu Nagaraththoam vivaththai panninapadi engaloor Kidaaramkonda Chola perum theruvile munnaalil erandu kulang kalluviththu ikkulangal pothuvaaki......"

    Inscription of Kulothunga Chola - 3 at Vikkiramamangalam Cholieswarer, Perambalur Mawattam, Udaiyaar Vattam.
    Aavanam Journal - by I. Thiyagarajan, Ithal 16, July 2005


    ".....Ithu Saalai Kidaaramkonda Cholan....."

    "......Ithu Saalai Kidaaramkonda....."

    "......Ithu Saalai Kidaarangkonda Cholan Paramaswamikal uchchiyam pothu Amuthu seitharuluvathatkku mun Utthamaakkramaaka Saalai Kidaaramkonda Cholanennum thirunaamaththaal Saalai....."

    "Purvadesamum Gangaiyum Kadaramum konda Ko Parakesaripanmarana Udaiyar Sri Rajendra Chola Devarkku yaandu 32 davathu, (Senai) nayagam Kadaremkonda Chola Brahmaraya sividattu (Jivitham - life interest)) Vikkrama Chola (Mandalaththu) Sannai naattu Alur....."

    Note: Alur was a village at the present Devanahalli region near present Airport of Karnataka State.

    Alur Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1 by S.Swaminathan, Asst Sup, Epigraphist A.S.I Mysore.
    "Kalvettu" Quarterly Journal - No 55, January 2002


    "....Sayamgonda-Solan uyarnta perum-pugal Sri Kovi Rajakesaripanmar ana
    Udaiyar Sri Rajadiraja Devarkku yandu 33 davadu senapati Rajendra-Sola-Brahmarayar jivitamanan-
    Tadigaivaliyana Vikkirama-Sola-mandalattu Sannai nattu varah kollumpadi sasanakal
    vettuvittu kudutta parisu......"

    Alur Inscription of Rajendra Chola - 1
    Epigraphica Carnatica - Vol 9, - Inscription No 76


    (42) The third Chola trade delegation to China from Sri Vijaya

    In the year A.D.1028 (in he sixth reign year 'tien-ching' of the Emperor Jen Sung) the Chola Viceroy Sri Deva (Si-li-tieh-hwa) sent an embassy to Chinese court on behalf of Sri Vijaya kingdom lead by Pu Ta-to-lo-hsieh and his deputy Ya-Chia-lu with tributes. The custom was the envoys from distant countries who brought tribute received a girdle adorned with gold and silver. But this time a girdle entirely of gold was given to them, possibly in recognition of the Chola supremacy in South-East Asia during of period by the Chinese Emperor.

    Evidence to the above References:

    (45) The fourth Chola trade delegation to China

    Again in the year A.D.1033 (in the a second reign year 'ming -tao' of the Emperor Jen Sung) another trade delegation of twenty seven envoy were sent under the Chola ambassador named Pou-ya-toli to China by Rajendra Chola - 1. He carried a letter from Rajendra Chola - 1 written in characters of gold to the Chinese Emperor, and presented him with a dress and a cap ornamented wih pearls, and hundred and five 'leang' pearls and hundred pieces of ivory.

    This ambassador mentioned that many embassies which left his country to China had faced storms in the sea and have perished along with their goods. He expressed his great desire to advance right up to the front of the imperial throne and perform the ceremony called Sa-tien which was in his view was the greatest way of show his respect to the emperor.

    The prmission was granted and the ambassador put all the pearls on a silver tray which he raised above his head after kneeling down, and then he spread them at the feet of the Emperor, who provided him with honorary titles.

    Evidence to the above References:

    (44) The last days of the life of Rajendra Chola - 1

    After thirty three years of rule Emperor Rajendra Chola - 1 fell ill towrds the year A.D.1044 while he was in the region Brammadeyam. Is seem with his old age he fell severely ill and the days were nearing to his death. On he realising same he one day called all his very close and trustworthy Ministers to the private chamber at Brammadeyam palace including some of his sons (and some immediate family members).

    They offered their salutations to the Emperor and took their seats, and the Emperor too in turn honoured them. Therafter he placed his son the Rajendra Chola - 2 (Dhabrasabadhipa meaning "Sittrambalavan" - the name of this prince prior to being anointed as the heir- apparent to Chola throne with the royal title the Rajendra - 2). He embraced him shedding tears and advised the Ministers "this son I love most and he too loves the people of the country" and requested them to offer the same respect that they gave to him also to this son. Thereafter he met his death in this same year A.D.1044. Rajendra Chola - 1 would have been around 79 - years of age at the time of his death.

    His body was interred at the royal pyre (pallipadai) built at the village Brammadeyam, and one of his queens very close to him named Viramadevi in grief over his death threw herself into the buring pyre and killed herself. In the same year in deep grief over the death of Rajendra Chola - 1 one of his favourite royal consort Anukkiyaar Nakkan Paravai Nangaiyaar too met her death.

    Evidence to the above References:

    ".....Once the king Rajendra invited his close and most trust worthy ministers of exemplary character to his private chamber. They took their seats as advised by the king. Thereupon the king kept on his own lap his son Dabhrasabhadhipa (Sittrambalavan) he embraced the son most affectionately and his entire body was abound of joy and shedding tears (of joy) on the head of the so, and as if he was strongly indicating what was in his heart the king told the ministers the following: "you are well aware that this son I love most he also very much loves the people of the country. Therefore please arrange to offer him the same respectful treatment as you were used to do for me". The ministers heard with attention this profound and serious (gambira) statement of the king and kept it well in their hearts. Then prostrating before the king they replied that they would certainly abide by the kings words......"
    Copper Plate on Grants to Rajendrachola Iswarem (present Kailasanathar temple) at Thiruvinthalur, Mayiladuthurai, in Tamil Nadu.
    Thiruvinthalur Ceppedukal - Translation of the Sanskrit portion by S.Sangaranaarayan, Verses 44,45,46,47, published by Tamil Nadu Archaeological Department, Chennai


    Discussion

    There is no direct evidence on the age of Rajendra Chola - 1 at the time of his death. However it could be approximately computed as follows.
    Athiththa Karikala the elder brother died when he was only a Heir Apparent and ruled for five years. If we presume that Athiththa Karikala was 20 years old and as we know he ruled in this capacity for five years it is clear he was 25 years of age at the time of his untimely death. If we assume there was a gap of two years each between Athitha Karikala, his sister Kudavai, and Rajaraja, then we arrive at Rajaraja's age at the time of death of Athitha Karikala to be around 21 years. The next successor to Chola throne after Athiththa Karikala namely Utthama Chola ruled for 15 years. There after Rajaraja ruled for 29 years followed by Rajendra Chola who ruled for 33 years. If we presume Rajaraja Chola married at 18 years then at the time of death of Athitha Karikala, the Rajendra Chola would have been 2 years old. Hence summing up we arrive at the approximate age of Rajendra Chola at the time of his death was 2 + 15 + 29 + 33 = 79 years. On this same basis Rajaraja Chola would have demised at the age of 65 years.





    (46) Rajathiraja Chola - 1 ascends the throne of the Chola empire with the death of Rajendra Chola - 1

    Thereafter the Ministers having understood the indirect request made by Rajendra Chola before his death as that his second son Sittrambalavan to be appointed as the new heir-apparent to Chola throne, requested him to agree for the anointing ceremony with religious rituals. But Sittrambalavan refused to same and requested "first" to call his elder brother Rajathiraja Chola - 1 from Mathurai where he was ruling as the Chola viceroy and who was already the next heir-apparent to Chola throne, and to anoint him as the next Emperor of the Chola empire. This they agreed and thus Rajathiraja Chola - 1 acended the Chola throne as it's next emperor in the year A.D.1044. Thus Rajathiraja Chola - 1 inherited the vast Chola empire from his father Rajendra chola - 1, having it's extreme outer limits at Mahodai (the present Kodungallur) in Kerala in the West, the Gangetic region in the North, the Ilankai (Sri Lanka) in the South, and Karadarem (in the present Kedah State in Malaysia) in the (far) East (overseas).

    He immediately therafter appointed his young brother Sittrambalavan as the new heir-apparent to the Chola throne as per the wish of his father before his death with the royal title Rajendra Chola - 2, and also made him the Chola viceroy of Paandiya Nadu and made him rule over that Paandiyan kingdom.

    Evidence to the above References:

    ".....Immediately after recording the king's vague disclosure of his wish, the ministers in acceptance of same.....fully realised his desire. But the land and the people herein were drowned in sorrow. Thereupon being attracted by the virtues of the son (Dabhrasabhapati) and obeying the words of the father (Rajendra - 1) the ministers approached the son and reminded him that 'the king ordered you for the kingdom as heir-apparaent'. So saying the ministers requested the prince to act as per the order of the father who was to be obeyed by the son and by ministers. The added the anointing of the prince (as heir-apparent), must be conducted immediately since the kingdom couldnot afford to remain without a king and all the preparations had been made ready for the formal religious function of the act. But the son magananimously and very politiely told them that 'the elder son alone should succeed the father. Now you all should bring the first son and perform the coronation since he alone is the master of me and of you all and of the whole earth......"
    Copper Plate Grant to Rajendracholaeswarem (present Kailasanathar temple) Thiruvinthalur in Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu. Thiruvinthalur Ceppedukal - Translation of the Sanskrit portion by S.Sangaranaarayan, verses 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, published by Tamil Nadu Archaeological Department, Chennai


    "......Thingaler pera valar angkathir kadavul
    tholkulam vilanga thoantri malkiya
    Vada thisai Gangaiyum Then thisai Ilangaiyum
    Kuda thisai Mahothaiyum Kunathisai Kadaaramum
    thandinil konda Thaathai than mandala
    venkudai nilal ena thankudai nilattri
    thisai thorum sengol otchchi(ya)........
    Kovi Rasakesari panmaraana Udaiyaar Sri Rajathirasa thevarkku aandu 26 vathu...."
    Inscription on a stone near Madeswara temple at Mandikere in Nelamangala Taluk, Karnataka State.
    Epigraphica Carnatica - Vol 9, Nelamangala Taluk, Inscription No: 25
    (also) South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 4, page 183, Inscription No:548


    (47) The endowments made & religious rituals held to the merit of Rajendra Chola - 1 and his Queen Viramathevi

    With the the death of the Queen Viramathevi (in the year) her own brother named Mathuranthahan alias Parakesari Velar who served under Rajendra Chola - 1 as his Military General (Senaapathi) arranged Water Shed (Thanneer Panthal) to quench the thirst of the soul of his sister at Brammapuriswarem Siva temple at Bramadeyam (19 km from the present Vilupuram of Tamil Nadu).

    Rajathiraja Chola - 1 too arranged through Perunguri mahasaba of Gandarathiththa Chathurvedimangalam for a festival to the merit of his father "Chakkaravarththi Rajendra Chola - 1" on the day of his birth natchathiram being the Adi Thiruvathirai day, at the Thirumalapaadi temple in Thirutchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu.

    With the death of Rajendra Chola - 1 his son Rajathiraja Chola - 1 in the year A.D.1045 [u]installed the bronze images of Rajendra Chola - 1 and his "Anukkiyaar Nakkan Paravai Nangaiyaar" at the Thiyagarajar temple at Thiruvaarur, (to which they two were much devoted), and arranged for the poosai offerings and neivethiyam for these two images regulerly, from the funds from the very same lands donated as endowments by them earlier to this same temple when they were alive.

    At Thiribhuvani in the village Thaniyur (in present Pondicherry) a mandapam was built at this temple by Sembiyan Umbala Naattu Muvenda Velaan to the merit of the soul of Rajendra Chola - 1. Subsequently in the year A.D.1048 the military general (Senapathi) of Rajathi Raja Chola -1 named Rajendra Chola Maavalivanarajar provided 72 veli (a land measure) lands yielding 12000 kalams of paddy per year for offerings in the name of Rajendra Chola from this same mandapam to celebrate festivals at this temple. Arrangement were made also for reciting Tamil "Thiruvaaimoli" (of Naalaayira Thivya Pirapandam) at this Vaisnavite temple.

    Evidence to the above References:

    ".....Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Dever sivalokaththukku elunththarulina thiruppallipadaiyileye udalai
    bramman paathaththu theravum sivalokaththukku eluntharulina Nampirattiyaar Viramahatheviyaarkku Sri mathahathhu (maha thaahaththukku) ivarudan pirantha Senaathipathikal Mathuraanthahan aana Parakesari Velar vaiththa thanneer panthal......"
    Inscription of Rajathiraja Chola - 1 of his 26th year at Brammiswarem temple at Brammadeyam, Tamil Nadu
    Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy - 1915, Inscription No: 260

    (An eye-copy of the 'original Tamil interpretation' made at site by I. Thiyakaraasan - Senior Lecturer, Government Fine Arts College, Ariyalur)

    "......The Perunguri mahasabaa of Gandaraathiththa Chathurvedimangalam to dispose of some taxes and institute a festival on "nanmai udaiya Chakravarththi Sri Rajendra Choladevar tirunakshaththiram......"
    Inscription on the Thirumalapaadi temple at Thirutchiraappalli district, Tamil Nadu.
    South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 5, Inscription No: 633
    Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy - Year 1895, Inscription No: 75


    ".......Udaiyar Sri Rajathirajathever in his 27th year Shythiriya Sikamanivalanaattu Thiruvarur kootraththu Thiruvarur periya koyil pathipala moolaththaaridai Udaiyar Sri Rajendra Chola Devar, Annukkiyaar Nakkan Paravai Nangaiyaar ikk koyil thevathanam Theepamkudiyil .....nilaththille Udaiyaar Sri Rajenthira thevarkkum Paravai Naachchiyaarkkum thiruamuthu.....thiruamuthkku venduvanavaittrikku.....thiru araneriyudaiyaarai thirua araathinai seikintra Brahmanan oruvanukku(m).....(nellu koduththu)......Udaiyaar Sri Rajendra Chola Thevarkkum Paravai nangaiyaarkkum thiruamuthukku mattakaalaal adaiththa nellu nootru irupathin kalam kondu nivantham seiyum padi (uthaavi idappattathu)......"
    Inscription on the north and west walls of the Karuvarai of Thiyagarajaswamy temple at Thiruvarur, Tamil Nadu.
    Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy -


    "......Land for offering in the name of Rajendra Chola by senapathi Rajendra Chola Mavalivanarajar under auspicious of the great assemby of the village at Thaniyur which met in the mandapam built by Sembiyan Umbalanattu Muvenda Velan for the merit of Rajendra. 72 veli land yielding 12000 kalam of paddy per annum of which 2475 kalam went for festivals (specified), feeding Vaisnavas and reciting the Thiruvaimoli, the balace going to the maintenance of an elaborately organised college of higher learning. Conditions laid down regarding the taxation of this land. Exemptions for teachers and students......"
    Inscription in the temple at Thiribhuvani in present Pondicherry in Tamil Nadu
    Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy - 1919, Inscription No: 176


    (48) The Chola Emperor Rajendra Chola - 1 was the foremost Emperor of India in it's very long history

    The Tamil Chola Emperor the Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1011-1044) was the "greatest Emperor of India" who not only captured many countries covering three quarter of then India and the near overseas countries, but also the first Indian King or Emperor who sent many war ships across the ocean during the medieval period, and captured many countries of South-East Asia and brought them under the Chola fold Hence "Rajendra Chola - 1 deserves an "outstanding and premier place" in the 2500 years long recorded history of entire India.








    Last edited by virarajendra; 13th May 2017 at 08:10 AM.

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